flag book chapter 1
Terms in this set (40)
Migrants from Asia may have crossed this and it once connected to siberia
This civilization built remarkable cities in the rain forest of the Yucatan Peninsula between A.D. 300 and 800.
This civilization occurred several centuries after the decline of the Mayas in a powerful central Mexican empire. The capital was Tenochtitlan in central mexico.
While the Aztecs were dominating Mexico and Central America, this civilization based in Peru developed a vast empire in South America.
A common crop of North American civilizations along with tobacco and beans. staple by the time columbus and friends visited north america. often grown in middle colonies and great plains by nomadic tribes
American Indian languages constituted more than 20 language families. This family was found predominantly in the Northeast.
American Indian languages constituted more than 20 language families. This family was found predominantly in the Great Plains.
Hokokam, Anasazi, and Pueblos
In the dry region that now includes New Mexico and Arizona, groups such as these evolved multifaceted societies supported by farming with irrigation system. Wiped out by drought and hostile natives.
multiple families related via a mother lived here. up to 200 ft long and members of Iriquois confed lived here.
This animal allowed tribes (ex; lakota sioux) of the great plains to move away from farming to hunting buffalo. were often traded or stolen from spanish
Tribes such as this one were able to move away from farming t buffalo hunting after the introduction of the horse
Woodland American Indians
These tribes prospered East of the Mississippi river with their rich food supply. They engages in hunting, fishing, and agriculture. They had many permanent settlements in the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys.
This culture, which was centered in Ohio, were known for their large earthen mounds. also known for cahokia- biggest settlement. nomadic farmers- bc the techniques exhausted the soil quickly.
This is one of the most famous groups of American indians in the Northeastern region. It consisted of five tribes: the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk. political union of 5 tribes living in the mohawk valley of NY.
A technological advancement which was adopted from Arab merchants who learned about it from the Chinese
An invention which aided the spread of knowledge across Europe in the 1450's
In early 1500's, certain Christians in Germany, England, Holland, and other Northern European countries revolted against the authority of the pope in Rome.
Prince Henry the Navigator
This person sponsored voyage of exploration by portugal that eventually succeeded in opening a long sea route around Africa's Cape of Good hope
Since Ancient times people in Europe, Africa, and Asia had enslaved people captured in wars. In the 15th century, the Portuguese began trading for slaves from west africa.
Enslaved peoples which were first traded by Portugal in the 15th century. Used by portugal primarily for sugar plantations
Countries in which the majority of people shared both a common culture and common loyalty toward a central government
Sought financial support for his plan to sail west and find the "indies". Presumed a failure because he found a "New World" instead of a trade route
Isabella and Ferdinand
The two spanish monarchs were at the height of their power, having just defeated the Moors in Granada. They agreed to outfit three ships and to make Columbus governor, admiral, and viceroy, of all the land that he would claim for Spain.
Deadlier than all the guns was the European importation of this thing. Examples included smallpox and measles. Natives had no immunity.
Treaty of Tordesillas
In 1494, Spain and Portugal moved the Pope's line of demarcation few degrees to the west and signed this. This solidified Portugal's claim to Brazil and Spain's claims to North America
Spain owed its expanding power to its exporters and conquerors
Conquistador of the Aztec civilization
Conquistador pf the Incan civilization
The king of Spain gave grants of landing natives to individual Spaniards. system set in place after the spanish stole the wealth from the N.amer. the indians had to farm/work in mines. fruits of labor went to spanish masters who "cared" for the idnians.
A system that required the Spanish to pay a tax to their king on each slave from west africa they imported to the Americas
England's earliest claims to territory in the Americas rested on the voyages of this person. He explored the coast of Newfoundland. italian sea captain sailed under king henry vii.
Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to establish this settlement which eventually failed.
French claims to American territory were based on the voyages
Samuel de Champlain
The first permanent french settlement in america was established by this person at Quebec along the St. Lawrence river. Also known as the Father of New France
Hired by the Dutch government to seek westward passage to Asia through Northern America. He sailed up a broad river which was later named for him. This expedition established Dutch claims to the surrounding area that would become New Amsterdam
Bartolome de Las Casas
A Spanish priest who had owned land and slaves in the west Indies and had fought wars against the indians before he eventually became an advocate for better treatment for the Indians. Influential in the institution of the New laws of 1542. argued that indians=civilized humans in v. debate
New laws of 1542
These laws ended indian slavery, halted forced Indian labor, and began to end the encomienda system which kept the indians in serfdom.
The debate over the role fr Indians in the Spanish colonies came to a head in a formal debate in 1550-1551 in Valladolid Spain. las casas claimed indians=humans/civilized. JGDS said BS, indians=savages. neither side won debate.
Juan Gines de Sepulveda
Argued that indians were less than human in the Valladolid debate
forcing people into work
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