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Both intracellular proteins (such as hemoglobin) and extracellular proteins (such as plasma proteins) can act as chemical buffers


ANP causes an increase in the loss of sodium and water through urine


Facultative water loss is loss that

is controlled by hormone effects on the kidney

When blood starts to become more alkaline than normal the renal tubules begin to

secret bicarbonate while reabsorbing H+ in exchange through type B cells

In the brain ADH ____ the thirst center and in the kidneys ADH causes an increase in water ____

stimulates, secretion

Calcium harden bone and teeth, but its levels are carefully controlled throughout the body. Low levels of calcium within cells are maintained by

pumps that move calcium out of cells or into the sarcoplasmic reticulum

When compared with the effects of blood pressure and osmolarity on fluid intake, the effects of saliva and stomach distention are

more immediate but less accurate

Cerebrospinal fluid of the central nervous system and synovial fluid of joint capsules are both examples of

extracellular fluid

Emphysema causes a decrease in the surface area of the respiratory membrane and thereby leads to respiratory


Drinking a liter of water will cause the osmolarity of blood plasma to


Excessive intake of alcohol leads to respiratory alkalosis


Which type of intake accounts for most of our daily fluid intake

preformed water

Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system triggers renin release from the JG apparatus of the kidneys


Renal compensation to a decrease in blood H+ levels is to increase the activity of type

B cells to excrete more bicarbonate

A comparison of the two major body fluid compartments revels that

Two thirds of the total fluid is within our cells and one third is outside our cells.

Insensible water loss is an example of facultative water loss


If a rummer drinks too much water before a marathon they run a risk of water intoxication also known as

Hypotonic hydration

At which stage of life is the percentage of fluid in the human body highest


The most abundant anion in the extracellular fluid is


The metabolic waste lactic acid is considered a volatile acid


The bicarbonate system is composed of H2CO3 and HCO3-. Which statement accurately describes these molecules

H2CO3 is a weak acid and HCO3- is a weak base

To buffer the body's extracellular fluid compartment, dihydrogen phosphate acts as a strong base and prevents acidosis of the plasma


The most common type of acid-base imbalance is

Respiratory acidosis

As an individual becomes dehydrated the net movement of fluid in their body is from cells toward plasma


Atrial natriurtic peptide causes ____ of afferent arterioles and _____ of mesangial cells

dilation, relaxation

High levels of ADH cause

Vasoconstriction and therefore increases in blood pressure

Diabetes mellitus, profuse sweating, and hyposecretion of ADH can each lead to


The plasma of our blood constitutes ____ than half of the fluid in our body; plasma is part of the ____ fluid.

Less, extracellular

The amine groups contained within amino acids of proteins can act as weak


Aerobic cellular respiration and dehydration synthesis reactions result in

metabolic water intake

Researchers have inflated balloons inside the stomachs of experimental subjects and have found that distention of the stomach causes thirst to


Angiotensin II triggers

vasoconstriction and decreased urine output from the kidneys

Insulin causes blood plasma levels of potassium to ____by_____activity of the Na+/K+ pumps

decrease, stimulating

The most abundant cation within cells is


Medicines that overstimulate respiratory centers in the brain lead to

respiratory alkalosis

If an individual's respiratory rate decreases, then blood CO2 levels

Rise, blood H+ levels rise, and blood pH falls

Fluid intake causes blood volume to increase, true or false?


Elderly individuals generally have a ____ percentage of body fluid and are therefore ____ prone to fluid imbalances

low, more

If someone in an accident suffered severe burns as well as hemorrhage, they would be at high risk for

volume depletion

Climbing at high altitude where oxygen levels are insufficient can lead to

respiratory alkalosis

Decreased stretch of baroreceptors within the aorta and carotid arteries results in stimulation of the hypothalamus; the stimulation increases ADH secretion. True or False?


Interstitial fluid has a relatively___concentration of sodium and chloride; the concentrations of ions within the interstitial fluid and blood plasma are very___

High, different

When comparing a lead adult female to a lead adult male, which will most likely have a higher percentage of body fluid

The male

If someone runs a marathon through a desert while eating pretzels and not drinking water, their plasma osmolarity

Rises and becomes hypertonic to the interstitial and intercellular fluid compartments

When compared to extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid contains

More potassium and more negatively charged proteins

Hypervenitlation leads to respiratory alkalosis. True or False


Most of the fluid in our body is contained within our cells


Interstitial fluid composes about ____ of the body's extracellular fluid


Feeling of thirstiness are about on by

Decreases in salivary secretions and increases in blood osmolarity

Renal Failure would likely lead to

volume excess

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