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50 terms

Anatomy Chapter 26

Both intracellular proteins (such as hemoglobin) and extracellular proteins (such as plasma proteins) can act as chemical buffers
ANP causes an increase in the loss of sodium and water through urine
Facultative water loss is loss that
is controlled by hormone effects on the kidney
When blood starts to become more alkaline than normal the renal tubules begin to
secret bicarbonate while reabsorbing H+ in exchange through type B cells
In the brain ADH ____ the thirst center and in the kidneys ADH causes an increase in water ____
stimulates, secretion
Calcium harden bone and teeth, but its levels are carefully controlled throughout the body. Low levels of calcium within cells are maintained by
pumps that move calcium out of cells or into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
When compared with the effects of blood pressure and osmolarity on fluid intake, the effects of saliva and stomach distention are
more immediate but less accurate
Cerebrospinal fluid of the central nervous system and synovial fluid of joint capsules are both examples of
extracellular fluid
Emphysema causes a decrease in the surface area of the respiratory membrane and thereby leads to respiratory
Drinking a liter of water will cause the osmolarity of blood plasma to
Excessive intake of alcohol leads to respiratory alkalosis
Which type of intake accounts for most of our daily fluid intake
preformed water
Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system triggers renin release from the JG apparatus of the kidneys
Renal compensation to a decrease in blood H+ levels is to increase the activity of type
B cells to excrete more bicarbonate
A comparison of the two major body fluid compartments revels that
Two thirds of the total fluid is within our cells and one third is outside our cells.
Insensible water loss is an example of facultative water loss
If a rummer drinks too much water before a marathon they run a risk of water intoxication also known as
Hypotonic hydration
At which stage of life is the percentage of fluid in the human body highest
The most abundant anion in the extracellular fluid is
The metabolic waste lactic acid is considered a volatile acid
The bicarbonate system is composed of H2CO3 and HCO3-. Which statement accurately describes these molecules
H2CO3 is a weak acid and HCO3- is a weak base
To buffer the body's extracellular fluid compartment, dihydrogen phosphate acts as a strong base and prevents acidosis of the plasma
The most common type of acid-base imbalance is
Respiratory acidosis
As an individual becomes dehydrated the net movement of fluid in their body is from cells toward plasma
Atrial natriurtic peptide causes ____ of afferent arterioles and _____ of mesangial cells
dilation, relaxation
High levels of ADH cause
Vasoconstriction and therefore increases in blood pressure
Diabetes mellitus, profuse sweating, and hyposecretion of ADH can each lead to
The plasma of our blood constitutes ____ than half of the fluid in our body; plasma is part of the ____ fluid.
Less, extracellular
The amine groups contained within amino acids of proteins can act as weak
Aerobic cellular respiration and dehydration synthesis reactions result in
metabolic water intake
Researchers have inflated balloons inside the stomachs of experimental subjects and have found that distention of the stomach causes thirst to
Angiotensin II triggers
vasoconstriction and decreased urine output from the kidneys
Insulin causes blood plasma levels of potassium to ____by_____activity of the Na+/K+ pumps
decrease, stimulating
The most abundant cation within cells is
Medicines that overstimulate respiratory centers in the brain lead to
respiratory alkalosis
If an individual's respiratory rate decreases, then blood CO2 levels
Rise, blood H+ levels rise, and blood pH falls
Fluid intake causes blood volume to increase, true or false?
Elderly individuals generally have a ____ percentage of body fluid and are therefore ____ prone to fluid imbalances
low, more
If someone in an accident suffered severe burns as well as hemorrhage, they would be at high risk for
volume depletion
Climbing at high altitude where oxygen levels are insufficient can lead to
respiratory alkalosis
Decreased stretch of baroreceptors within the aorta and carotid arteries results in stimulation of the hypothalamus; the stimulation increases ADH secretion. True or False?
Interstitial fluid has a relatively___concentration of sodium and chloride; the concentrations of ions within the interstitial fluid and blood plasma are very___
High, different
When comparing a lead adult female to a lead adult male, which will most likely have a higher percentage of body fluid
The male
If someone runs a marathon through a desert while eating pretzels and not drinking water, their plasma osmolarity
Rises and becomes hypertonic to the interstitial and intercellular fluid compartments
When compared to extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid contains
More potassium and more negatively charged proteins
Hypervenitlation leads to respiratory alkalosis. True or False
Most of the fluid in our body is contained within our cells
Interstitial fluid composes about ____ of the body's extracellular fluid
Feeling of thirstiness are about on by
Decreases in salivary secretions and increases in blood osmolarity
Renal Failure would likely lead to
volume excess