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What type of reaction breaks down the bonds that join the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule?

hydrolysis (involves breaking bonds with the addition of water)

The most common energy carrier molecule in living organisms is:


A "high energy" bond in an ATP molecule is located between:

two phosphate groups

Which molecule functions in the short term storage of energy?

adenosine triphosphate

most enzymes are ______.


enzymes work by ______.

reducing EA (energy of activation)

an enzyme ______.

is an organic catalyst (enzymes are proteins that behave as catalysts)

What name is given to the reactants in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction?


As a result of its involvement in a reaction

an enzyme ______.,is unchanged

Which of the following lowers the activation energy of a biochemical reaction?


Which of the following functions as a biological catalyst?


animals have enzymes that break apart starch molecules but not cellulose

despite the fact that both are made up of glucose subunits. Which enzyme characteristic BEST explains this?,Enzymes are highly specific

What is the ultimate source of energy for almost all forms of life on earth?

solar energy

Most enzymes do not work if the temperature is raised too much. Why is this?

enzymes denature at higher temperatures (incorrect temperature, pH, and salt concentrations cause an enzyme to change shape)

The metabolism of a cell is the sum of all its chemical reactions. True or False?


energy that is not converted to useful energy is usually given off as:


Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis?

6 CO2+6 H20 --> C6H12O6+6 O2

The light reactions of photosynthesis use ____ and produce ____.

water....NADPH (during the light reactions, water is split to produce oxygen. Excited electrons from water join with NADP+ to produce NADPH

What is the purpose of a cuticle on a leaf?

to prevent water loss (the was cuticle makes the leaf waterproof, to preven water from leaving by evaporation. The oil on your skin performs a similar function)

How is O2 involved in photosynthesis?

O2 is a product of the light reactions. (O2 is produced when water is consumed in the light reactions.)

Before photosynthesis evolved

_____ was rare in the earths atmosphere.,O2

The products of photosynthesis are:

glucose and oxygen

All of the following compounds are necessary constituents for photosynthesis EXCEPT:


The cellular organelle that is responsible for photosynthetic activity is the:


_____ has a longer wavelength than ______.

You place a plant in a transparent box made of greenish-yellow plastic. How does this affect photosynthesis for the plant?

None of the plant pigments will be able to absorb the light. Photosynthesis will stop. (none of the major pigments absorb at this wavelength)

Why do plants leaves appear green?

the chlorophyll in leaves reflects green light

Why do plants produce O2?

because O2 is produced as a by-product when the plant creates H+ ions and free electrons from water

Where are the electrons used in a photosystem II found at the very end of the light reactions?

in NADPH (the electrons and a few of the hydrogen ions released from water in photosystem II are bound to NADP+ to form molecules of NADPH)

The energy source in photosynthesis is:

visible light

Suppose that you are experimenting with different types of lighting for your indoor green plants. Which of the following colors of light will be most effective?


Light reactions produce:

ATP, NADPH, and O2

Where does the O2 released during photosynthesis come from?


During the process of photosynthesis

solar energy is converted to:,chemical energy

The light reactions of photosynthesis result in which of the following?

synthesis of ATP

The energy of the movement of electrons down a concentration gradient via electron transport within chloroplasts and mitochondria is used to generate molecules of:


Suppose you are studying photosynthesis in a research lab. You grow your plants in a chamber with a source of water that has a radioactively labeled oxygen atom. What photosynthetic product will be radioactive?

O2 gas

The NADPH required for carbon dioxide fixation is formed:

during the light reactions

The primary function of the light reactions of photosynthesis is to:

produce energy-rich ATP and NADPH

Which of the following provides O2 as an end product?

light reaction

why do chloroplasts make energy carriers during the light reactions?

to provide energy for the synthesis of sugar. (sugar synthesis is endergonic and requires the energy in ATP and NADPH to proceed)

What structural feature of a leaf enables it to obtain CO2 from the air?


All of the following factors influence the rate of photosynthesis EXCEPT:

atmosperic N2 levels

All of the following compounds are necessary constituents for photosynthesis EXCEPT:


The pigment(s) that absorb light energy to drive photosynthesis is/are:

chlorophyll and carotenoids

The ATP and NADPH synthesized during the light reactions are:

dissolved in the stomata

Carbon fixation involves the addition of carbon dioxide to _____.

RuBP (in the calvin cycle, carbon dioxide is added to RuBP)

after 3-PGA is phosphorylated

it is reduced by _____.,NADPH

How many carbon dioxide molecules must be added to RuBP to make a single molecule of glucose?

6 (6 carbon dioxide molecules are required to produce two G3P molecules, which can be combined to make one glucose molecule)

in the calvin cycle

how many ATP molecules are required to regenerate RuBP from five G3P molecules?,3

In which of the following organelles does photosynthesis take place?


What connects the two photosystems in the light reactions?

an electron transport chain

What two molecules are produced by the light reactions and used to power the calvin cycle?


What provides electrons for the light reactions?


What provides the carbon atoms that are incorporated into sugar molecules in the calvin cycle?

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

what transports electrons from the light reactions to the calvin cycle?


The light reactions take place in the _______ and the calvin cycle takes place in the ______.

Thylakoids; stroma

The term "cycle" is used to describe the calvin cycle because:

the process begins and ends with RuBP

Which of the following occurs during the calvin cycle of photosynthesis?

carbon dioxide is converted to chemicals that can be used to make sugars.

In the C3 pathway

where does the carbon come from to form glucose?,atmospheric CO2

Which of the following is NOT true of chlorophyll?

it is found in mitochondria

The role of water in photosynthesis is to:

provide electrons

The energy of the movement of electrons down a concentration gradient via electron transport within the thylakoid membrane is used to generate:


Many plants have evolved leaves that have adjustable pores

called ______, which allow for gas exchange and water loss.,stomata

Carbon dioxide is required in the light reactions of photosynthesis. True or False?


Which of the following is a source of electrons that green plants use for reduction reactions?


Glucose synthesis during photosynthesis requires that:

the products of energy-capturing reactions must be available

All of the following are part of the Calvin cycle EXCEPT:

generation of ATP

ATP is required during which of the following reactions?

The calvin cycle only

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