Transforming design and construction
Terms in this set (39)
A one page report prepared on a single 11 by 17 inch sheet of paper that adheres to the discipline of the PDCA thinking as applied to problem solving or A3 thinking. The A3 includes the background, problem statement analysis, proposed corrective actions and the action plan, and the expected results, often with graphics. A3 reports can be used as a standard method for summarizing problem solving efforts including analysis of target value design options, status reports and planning exercises.
Production preparation process (3P) is preparing an area physically and process wise for a new or expanded service line. It involves simulation, usually using cardboard cutouts to look at the layout for staff to design or redesign space.
In target value design, the documented costs of actually performing a portion of work or an entire project based upon agreed definitions of cost, overhead and profit.
The maximum amount the owner is willing and able to spend for a facility asset
An accumulation of produced by a trade, discipline or other specialist that moves as a unit. The goal of lean is to produce a batch size of one to achieve single piece flow. leading to the mantra: Flow where you can. Pull where you can't. Push where you must.
individual certification of full time facilitators for long term projects (four to nine months) or Kaizens (two to five days) using lean six sigma methodology. Black belts also can coach green belts and the A3 process.
Commitment based planning
A planning system that is based on making and securing reliable promises in a public setting.
Conditions of satisfaction
A directive of set of criteria that specifies how the success of the outcome will be gauged.
The phase of the project that determines what is being built. Deliverables include program, technology plan, target cost budget, performance metrics, conditions of satisfaction, and milestone schedule.
The term is from the AIA IPD terms: The project phase where the project begins to take shape. Deliverables include: set based design studies evaluated and studied by the IPD team; real time estimating; defined scope/target cost approval; more developed schedule, and quality review of constructibility of design.
The primary recipient of the output from processes. In lean six sigma, the terms customer, external customer, or end user describes individuals and organizations that pay for and receive products and services. The terms customer, internal customer, or process partner often are used at the project level to describe those parts of the organization that internally receive the output from processes being improved.
The term is from the AIA IPD terms: This project phase concludes the what phase of the project. Deliverables include: approved documents with decisions defined; definition of all major building systems including furniture, fixtures and equipment, and coordination and full engineering of all building elements. Also, sub trades are ready to start shop drawings; construction quality review and outline, and products are established and vetted for specifications.
A sequential five step improvement process for improving existing products and services. DMAIC is the abbreviation for define, measure, analyze, improve, and control.
Define: describes the performance gap to be closed.
Measure: describes the method of measurement and collection of data to describe the baseline performance.
Analyze: identifies the root cause of the performance gap.
Improve: develops, selects, and implements improvements to the process.
Control: validates that the performance gap has been closed and establishes management controls and ongoing metrics to ensure that project gains can be sustained over time.
The many and multiple secondary projects required to be accomplished before the primary project can be undertaken.
Describes when it is near impossible for an error to occur. Examples in healthcare are dialysis machines that allow only flow out of the patient; Leur locks that allow only certain syringes to attach to be attached; and internal feeding tubes that will not attach to IV machines.
An expression of the team's best estimate at the conclusion of the validation phase of what current best practice would produce as a price for the facility reflected in the accompanying basis of the design documents. Typically the expected cost will also be supported by benchmarking or other market data to calibrate the expected cost in light of the market context
Evidence based design
Evidence based design represents a model of a design practice characterized by the used generation of scientific evidence to support decision making.
A tool used to identify and organize possible causes of a problem in a structured format. It looks like the skeleton of a fish, with the head of the fish used as the main problem in a question and the body to signify the causes. It also can be used as a tool for capturing the ideas of a team.
Future state value stream map
Taking the current state value stream map and seeing how it should look in an ideal world, eliminating steps and getting rid of waste.
Individual certification of part time facilitators of long term projects (four to nine months) or Kaizens (two to five days) that are of strategic importance to the organization using lean six sigma methodology. These staff members can also coach on A3 development and help with back belt project initiatives.
This term is from the AIA IPD terms. During this phase, focus shifts from what is being created to documenting how it will be implemented. deliverables include coordinated BIM model, shop drawings for some trades, specifications, and the drawings required to define, procurement, assembly, layout, schedule, procedural information, and legal systems.
Stock on hand- often divided between raw materials inventory, work in process and finished goods inventory.
The utilization of a resource. The amount of output expected from a production unit or individual worker within a given time. Within a weekly work plan, what is to be accomplished by a design squad or individual designer, engineer, draftsperson, construction craft worker, crew, etc. A quality assignment loads a resource within its capacity.
Look ahead window
The duration associated with look ahead planning. Typically look ahead windows extend from three to twelve weeks into the future, with six weeks preferred on most projects. Reducing the lookahead period normally will increase inventory pushed to site organization.
Japanese word for non value added or Ohno's wastes +1
Japanese word for unevenness- fluctuation in demand that causes the workflow to be uneven.
Japanese work for overburdening- excessive demand on a system that causes the system to produce beyond its reasonable capacity. Pushing a machine or person beyond natural limits. Overburdening people results in safety and quality problems. Overburdening equipment causes breakdowns and defects.
A ease/impact chart that segregates ideas into possible, implement, challenge and kibosh categories.
The extent to which a plan is an accurate forecast of future events, measured by PPC. Example: If your weekly work plans have 60 percent PPC, they accurately predict completion/release of 60 percent of the tasks represented as weekly assignments.
PPC (Percent plan complete)
A basic measure of how well the planning system is working - calculated as the number of assignments completed on the day stated divided by the total number of assignments made for the week. In many cases the PPC will be less than 50 percent when a project starts to monitor the PPC and will rise to 80 or 90 percent as the team becomes conscious of the need to actually perform work as planned. PPC is not a form of earned value that measures the percentage of completion achieved for an activity; rather it measures the percentage of assignments that are 100 percent complete.
A flowchart identifying all the activities, operations, steps and work times for a process.
The individual ultimately responsible for the process: director, manager or supervisor of the department.
A map that shows the current layout of operations and the path taken by people, the product, or the service as it moves through the processes, often resembling a plate of spaghetti.
Standard work instructions (SWI)
One of the most important lean tools. It established the best current sequence for each process. It should be routinely evaluated, updated, and improved. Standard work reduces chaos, achieves consensus, supports creativity, enables job rotation, stabilizes the process, incorporates visual management, and provides a baseline for improvement. It is the best way that we know how a process should work currently.
Problems associated with the current condition. Any reasons for delay or failure to move onto the next step in the process could be considered storm clouds.
Total productive maintenance (TPM)
A consistent system established for maintaining and servicing equipment that minimizes downtime (ie. establishing a regular preventative schedule before there are equipment breakdowns).
Using visual cues to assist with standard work instructions; a visual workplace is a nonverbal method of sharing information. Everyone is made aware of the status of the work and is easily able to spot abnormal conditions. Could be signage for patients or tape on the counters to signal that the next step in the process needs to be done.
Voice of the customer
Voice of the customer is a term used to describe customer's needs and perceptions of a product or service. This is necessity for understanding the best way to meet customer or patient's needs.
Work balancing (level loading)
Creating a more continuous workflow by ensuring that one step in a process is not causing a delay. This about ensuring that each step in the overall process contains similar amounts of work so that no one is overburdened and no one is waiting. Everyone is working together in a balanced fashion.