-"Henry VIII's successor who continued the Anglican church; turned back the Spanish Armada; encouraged mercantilism"
-"After the Protestant Elizabeth ascended to the English throne in 1558, Protestantism became dominant in England, and rivalry with Catholic Spain intensified. In the 1570s and 1580s, Elizabeth's troops crushed the Irish uprising with terrible ferocity, inflicting unspeakable atrocities upon the native Irish people. The English crown confiscated Irish lands and "planted" them with new Protestant landlords from Scotland and England. Although accused of being vain, fickle, prejudiced, and miserly, she proved to be an unusually successful ruler. She never married, although various royal matches were projected."
Protestant Queen of England, made Protestism dominant in England. As a result, she intensified the Rivalry England had with Catholic Spain. Her traps crushed Irish uprising and confiscated their land, planing Protestant land lords, creating domestic issues that festered until the present day."
-"revolution of 1688, the overthrow of King James the second, by King William and queen Mary."
-"King James II's policies, such as converting to catholicism, conducting a series of repressive trials known as the "Bloody Assizes," and maintianing a standing army, so outraged the people of England that Parliament asked him to resign and invited King William of the Netherlands (who became known as William II in England), to take over the throne. King James II left peacefully (after his troops deserted him) and King William II and his wife Queen Mary II took the throne without any war or bloodshed, hence the revolution was termed "glorious.""
-"A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange."
1st EditionJohn Lund, Paul S. Vickery, P. Scott Corbett, Todd Pfannestiel, Volker Janssen 8th EditionEric Hinderaker, James A. Henretta, Rebecca Edwards, Robert O. Self 9th EditionEric Hinderaker, James A. Henretta, Rebecca Edwards, Robert O. Self