Polestar Exam Review
Terms in this set (94)
What is "tripod WB" refering to in the spine?
disc in front and facets in back
Local muscles or deep local stabilizers primary job is
proprioception and stiffness -
These are muscles that have unique control over the posturing of our head.
These deep local muscles: the Rectus Capitus Posterior, the Oblique Capitus Superior and the Oblique Capitus Inferior.
In anticipation of movement, the Transverse Abdominis
Activates sub-consciously and sub-threshold
The primary purpose of the rectus abdominis is to:
Accelerate or decelerate flexion and extension of the spine
The deep muscles of the back (multifidi and rotatores):
Create stiffness and control around the spine based on the anticipated activity
Which of the following is true regarding fascia?
Fascia is a living, dynamic, communicating tissue in our body that links all of our cells together
Prevents collapse or shift forward of spinal vertebrae
The Anterior Longitudinal Ligament:
The ligamentum flavum is different from other ligaments as it is:
Yellow, elastic, made to stretch and expand
Are extremely thick ligaments that connect the ilium and sacrum together
wraps all the way around the body and connects to the posterior lumbar
fascia, or the thoracolumbar fascia. It draws
on the rectus sheath and on the thoracolumbar
fascia, which is filled with the erector spinae and the multifidi muscles.
The psoas major ascends
and has a relationship with our spine.
It ascends past the lumbar spine,
and has insertions up through the diaphragm
into the lower thoracic spine in the anterior body
or the anterior lateral body of the vertebra. This is very important.
What connects the arm to the thoracolumbar fascia?
the latissimus dorsi muscle
These pelvic floor sphincters are suspended
and held in place by this sling.
This is called the pubococcygeus muscle
The intervertebral disc
functions as a shock absorber
axial elongation places the vertebrae in their optimal position , minimizing destructive forces to the disc
WB inc. compressive forces on disc
compression/decompression necessary for disc health
the outer shell- provides strength and stability to disc
The nucleus pulposes
the jelly like center provides the distribution of forces between vertebrae
effects on disc during spine flexion
compresses the anterior portion of the disc, pushing the nucleus posteriorly
effects on disc during spine extension
compression the posterior portion of the disc, pushing the nucleus anteriorly
control of mobility
According to Panjabi's Model for Stability, stability comes from which of the following 3 factors?
Motor control, inert structures, contractile structures
At end range of motion
A force couple is defined as:
Muscles working together to create increased stiffness, strength or acceleration
Muscular slings are important because they:
Work synergistically together with the fascial system to optimize movement and performance
Neutral spine is defined as:
Position of the spine in which every joint is held in an optimal position to allow for equal distribution of force through the entire structure
Panjabi defines the "neutral zone" as
A measure of spinal laxity in the vicinity of the neutral position
Which muscle provides greater than 2/3 of the stiffness around the L4-5 segment?
One aspect of Core Control is
The appropriate strength for the desired movement
Deep intersegmental muscles of the spine:
Have up to 6 times more muscle spindle fibers than their superficial counterparts
How does segmental movement in a safe range of motion help clients
By "waking up" local stabilizers and inhibiting global stabilizers
inappropriate stiffness for anticipated load
- neuro excitation- over-recruitment of global muscles, over anticipation of load
-neuro inhibition- pain inhibition of intrinsic muscles, reciprocal inhibition caused by over-recruitment of antagonist
-Excessive stiffness vs. excessive movement
(genetic predisposition, habitual patterns, compensatory patterns)
How can clients acquire new or correct movement?
By improving awareness and then practicing the new skill with that heightened awareness
According to research, which subgroups with low back pain were most likely to benefit from a Pilates-Based exercise program?
Individuals who: are overweight, have a high BMI, have pain that does not go below the knee, and have pain localized in the lumbar spine
According to the lecture the quote "Distribution of Movement Equals Distribution of Force" means:
Segmental movement decreases stress and force that often causes low back pain
Cervical joint characteristics
greatest ROM in all planes
50% of cervical ROM from OA and AA
Coronal orientation of facets
facets at approximately 45 degrees
Thoracic joint characteristics
smallest ROM in all planes
greatest movement in rotation (transverse)
least mobement in lateral flexion
coronal orientation of facets
facets at approximately 60 degrees
lumbar joint characteristics
designed for WB
most movement in flexion/extension (sagital)
least movement in rotation (transverse)
facets at approximately 90 degrees
upper thoracic movement pattern
T1-T7: Rot>flex/ext> SB
lower thoracic movement pattern
T8-T12: Flex/EXt >SB
cervical movement pattern C3-C7
cervical movement pattern C1-C2
50% of motion- flex/ext and rot
Fryette's Law says that:
When the slack of a spinal segment is taken up in one direction of movement, there will be less available movement in other planes of movement
muscles of inhalation
in the neck, and the scaleni, and some of the other small strap muscles
muscles of exhalation
pelvic floor muscles
OA joint movement
Flexion/extension and lateral flexion
AA joint movement
Maintaining optimal surface contact at the articulation between boney surfaces of the joint
Excessive range of motion with dynamic control
when flexing the shoulder the scapular should
biomechanics of head neck and shoulder organization
we started having congestion in those Mu Points,
or that we had some problems with our lung, gallbladder and some
of those meridians before and we lost our posture.
That is not what is important right now.
What is important is that to restore the normal function is to improve our
posture to reorganize our shoulder growing into our head and to improve the flow of
Chi and energy through those Meridians that are found in our chest, neck, or shoulders.
motor control and acquisition of new movement in head, neck ,and shoulder organization
relaxation of the jaw, sternum and face with breath
increase lateral width of shoulder and thorax
optimize space between ears and shoulders
maintain the above throughout movement
upward rotators of scapula
downward rotators of the scapula
This involves all the body parts approximating towards the central axis as much as structure permits".
During walking, we mostly use our muscles to:
Decelerate our motion
At toe off during gait, our foot:
Stiffens and becomes more aligned
motor control as the ability to
regulate or direct the mechanisms essential to movement) these mechanisms essential to movement are as follows: the task, the environment, and the individual.
the integration of sensory impressions into psychologically meaningful information
cognitive processes broadly include attention, motivation, and emotional aspects of motor control that underlie the establishment of intent or goals
the control of actions implies understanding motor output from the nervous system to the body's effector systems or muscles. The body is characterized by a high number of joints and muscles , all which must be controlled during successful movement execution
4 stages of competence, or acquisition of advanced movement skills
unconsciously incompetent, consciously incompetent, consciously competent, unconsciously competent
In Motor Control, movement emerges from which of the following factors?
The task, the environment, and the individual
multiple systems affect the outcome of successful or faulty movement acquisition and execution. Systems theory allows us to take into consideration many factors
influential factors in movement
central nervous system
peripheral nervous system
depends on awareness, attention, and reflection. Pilates is built on the ability to heighten awareness of self through movement
once a heightened state of awareness has been achieved, practice leads to procedural learning, which does not require awareness, but repetition. Giving clients a functional task to perform repeatedly will significantly improve potential for movement acquisition
Bio-energetics of movement integration
A balanced movement throughout the
entire system supports balance flow of energy throughout
all energetic systems.
in energetic medicine where the body mind and spirit are one, movement of the structure is movement of the entire system
4 stages of rehab
Pain control: stability, bio-mechanical education, disassociation
Mobility: move through painful range
Polestar Pilates Program Design and Sequencing
first 20 min supine (breathing, UE/ LE warm-up)
middle part: (20min) UE WB, Spine EXT, seated
medial condyle is larger than the lateral
What is Crontology?
Is complete coordination of body, mind, and spirit. Through Contrology you first purposefully acquire complete control over your own body and then through proper repetition of its exercises you gradually and progressively acquire that natural rhythm and coordination associated with all your mental and subconscious activities.
When was Jo born?
What did Jo suffer from ?
asthma, rickets, rheumatic fever
When did go immigrate to US?
Who did he meet on the voyage?
Clara, a nurse- future wife
Where was their fitness studio?
New York with the New York City Ballet
By the _______Joe and Clara's style of exercise termed pilates was becoming widely popular.
In 1970, _________ became the director of Joe and Clara's original studio
____________opened a studio in Los Angeles in 1970
The only Pilates practitioners ever to be certified officially by Joe through a special program at the State of University of New York
Kathy Grant and Lolita San Miguel
Other students of joe and clara who opened their own studio
1992 Pilates was
copyrighted and lawsuits ensued
Nov. 19th 1999
court ruling pilates was generic
Influences on Polestar Pilates within the pilates community
lolita san miguel
jean claude west
Ron Fletcher ( Diane Severino, michael Podwal)
Influences from outside the Pilates Community
Feldenkrais- movement exploration
Complementary Therapies- Carol Davis
Imagery- Eric Franklin
Neuro-Linguistic Psychology- Alastair Greetham
Manual therapy- Norwegian, Australian
3 Guiding Pilates Principles
Whole body Health
Whole Body Committment
Whole Body Health
Whole body health - refers to the development of the body, mind, and spirit. Can be achieved through exercise, proper diet, good hygiene and sleeping habits, plenty of sunshine and fresh air and a balance in life of work , recreation, and relaxation.
Whole Body Commitment
" To achieve the highest accomplishments within the scope of our capabilities in all walks of life, we must constantly strive to acquire strong, healthy bodies and develop our minds to the limit of our ability"
"above all learn how to breath correctly"
internal shower: resulting in mental and physical invigoration and rejuvenation
Stages of Rehabilitation
Stage I: Pain Control
Stage II: Begin Non-Destructive Movement
Stage III: Begin Proprioceptive and Kinesthetic training in protective range
Stage IV: Set Limits
Pain Control: passive afferent treatment and biomechanical counseling.
Avoid further irritation
Activity limitation education
Begin non-destructive movement
Mobilization: restore ROM
Begin Prioprioceptive and kinesthetic training in protective range
Foriegn Environment to Familiar Environment
Set Limits pertaining to movements, load, positions, frequencies
Look "with-in" to set limits
Identify pre pain, pre fatigue sensations
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