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Option A - FRESHWATER (Paper 1)
Terms in this set (43)
A drainage basin is an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries. Cross section x velocity = cumecs
A stream or river that flows into a larger stream or or river.
The meeting point of two or more rivers or two or more bodies of water.
The original point from which the river flows.
Part of a river where the river flows into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea or an ocean.
A closed system describing the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
A boundary that divides/separates two drainage basins.
The main INPUT into the drainage basin
The process by which a liquid or a solid is changed into a gas.
A combination of evaporation and transpiration, when moisture escapes from living plants, mainly the leaves, entering the atmosphere, being evaporated.
The process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapour and is released to the atmosphere.
When water moves down from the surface into the soil.
When water in the soil moves down further into rocks.
Overland flow (surface runoff)
This is when water flows over the land's surface (it generally cannot infiltrate)
The upper layer of permanently saturated water within solid rocks (beneath the surface).
An underground reservoir of water.
Water that either falls through gaps in the vegetation or which drops from leaves or stems
Water in the soil that moves in a sideways direction (also known as lateral)
This refers to water that is caught and stored by vegetation.
The snow and ice in the environment.
Water that trickles along twigs and branches and finally down the main trunk or stem.
The volume of water passing a certain point at a certain period of time.
This shows efficiency of a river. Calculated my the cross section divided by the wetted perimeter (m)
The total length of the bed and banks in contact with water
The seasonal variation in the flow of a river
This shows us how often a particular flood of a certain magnitude can take place ...
Also known as a recurrence interval - this is an estimate of the likelihood of an event
A measure of "how severe" a flood (size)
Difference between peak rainfall and discharge on a flood hydrograph
Material breaking down as it collides - breaking it into smaller pieces.
The wearing away of the bed and banks in a river by water
When materials rubs against or wears away (digs out the bed) the bed or banks in a river.
Fine material (light) transported in the flow of a river
A transportation process in the upper course, material is being dragged or rolls along the river bed
Rising Limb (Hydrograph)
This indicates the increasing discharge in a river on a flood hydrograph
shows how discharge changes in response to a precipitation event. There is a lag time between the event of precipitation and the peak discharge. Can be dramatically effected by human activity: paving roads, etc. increases speed of flooding and decreases lag time.
Time between peak rainfall and peak discharge
Normal discharge of the river
The seasonal variations in the discharge of a river
The moisture already in a soil before a rainfall event
The shape of the land (elevation/height -flat or steep)
A sudden increase in discharge.
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