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Academic and Behavior Exam 2
Terms in this set (63)
What do the words Specific Language Impairment, Language Delay, Language Disorder describe?
Used to describe student who are having difficulty learning language, and don't have any intellectual, sensory or emotional problems.
Difficulty with the form of language, content of language, function of language
Construction of word forms
Order and combination of words to form sentences
meanings of words in sentences
Common manifestations of language difficulties in PreK/K students (4)
Delayed readiness, unable to follow simple directions, immature-sounding speech, unable to make one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds.
Behavior of Children with Language Problems
Attention deficits, need additional time to understand information and form ideas, hate frustration
Issues Elementary Students with Language Difficulties have: (4)
Difficulty to ID sounds, understand sound sequences, problems segmenting words into grammatical units. Trouble with temporal and spatial/abstract concepts.
Secondary Students with writing problems have trouble: (3)
Have trouble understand higher level syntax, semantics and pragmatics
What kind of Intervention should one do for Secondary Students with writing trouble?
change from content-oriented approach to a functional approach.
5 Major reasons for Language Assessment
ID potential language problems, determine language level, design appropriate intervention programs, monitor progress, evaluate program
Strategies for Teaching Language (4)
comprehension, production, imitation, modeling
What percentage of 4th graders perform below reading level?
Emergent Literacy is...
Concepts about print and phonological awareness
Uhry's statement about children with dyslexia (4)
Deficits in phonological awareness, problems decoding-encoding, limited short term memories, process print and sound too slowly.
Questions teachers should ask when observing student performance in regards to reading:(4)
What is the student's attitude toward reading? What is his/her specific reading interest? Are they making progress? What strengths/weaknesses do they exhibit?
Essential Reading Skills (4)
Phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, comprehension
5 Components of Reading Instruction
Phonological, phonics, fluency, comprehension, vocabulary
Print is introduced and paired with corresponding sounds. Phonics= graphemes + phonemes
Analogy based phonics
Word families (jump, stump, hump)
NOT GOOD! teaches random letter-sound relationships of words while reading text.
Focuses on breaking words into syllables.
Teaches students explicitly to convert letters into sounds and then blend them to pronounce recognizable words. (Excellent strategy)
Theory of Automaticity
High levels of fluency allow students to develop automaticity in reading. When automaticity is reached, a student can perform the task without paying attention.
Theory of Sight Word Efficency
Sight word vocabulary is a key component in fluent reading. Fluent reading=recognizing words quickly and accurately.
Theory of Cumulative Deficit
Struggling readers in the critical period of 3rd grade (when student's sight word vocabulary explodes) are being left in the dust. Their difficulty with reading keeps them behind.
Theory of Processing Speed and Reading
Letter reading fluency predicts word reading fluency.
Children focus on pictures, colors and shapes. They begin to associate printed words with feelings (pizza=yummy). Phonological awareness should be encouraged through counting words, ID letters & sounds.
Children begin to sound out words, learn CV, divde/blend words. Understand alphabet, letter-sound relationships and decode words using analogy. Instruction should focus on building ID speed of phonemes.
Confirmation and Fluency (3)
Reading speed & sight word vocab increases.
What does "Reading to Learn:" mean? (4-8)
Student learns new sight words, starts to construct knowledge using words. Fluency problems "tend to emerge" in 4 & 5th.
Direct instruction, promote generalization by using new words as much as possible, silent reading at appropriate level.
new, essential and confusing words. Group words with similar letter patterns.
NRP's 7 Instructional Strategies
Comprehension monitoring, cooperative learning, graphic organizers, question answering, generating questions, story starters, summarizing.
Students ask themselves whether or not they understand text as they read. If they don't, they use strategies to understand text.
Students learn components of story and how to organize a story using graphic organizers.
Systematic and Explicit Comprehension Strategy Instruction
Teach comprehension strategies explicit and systematically, promote meta-cognition, in-depth discussions and authentic reading/writing.
Comprehension Instruction for Students with Reading Disabilities
Basic reading skills, fluency, self-questioning strategies, comprehension monitoring, encouraging students to recognize success.
Phases Spelling of Development
Learning to spell, correct & automatic spelling
Formal spelling introduction (2), breaking words into syllables and adding endings (9-11), morphemes & roots (11-14)
Teaching Spelling Skills
Teaching rules and generalizations
Types of rule-based instruction
linguistic, phonics, rule-based/
Spelling study strategies
say, write, check, trace, write repeat
Spelling for students with learning problems
Focus on high-frequency words from their writing, only 6-12 words at a time, 2-3 introduced at any one time.
Factors Contributing to Handwriting Problems
Motor problems, vision, poor memory, poor instruction, lack of motivation.
Errors in Writing Instruction
lack of supervision, feedback, emphasis on error analysis, close-range models, drills.
During handwriting instruction, students should do the following:
sitting in a comfortable chair, place forearms on the table comfortably, non-writing hand holds the writing paper, pencil should be held tightly.
How to improve written expression skills in children with problems
Increase instructional time, teach written language as an integrated process, coordinate written language activities across content
Self Regulated Strategy Development
Evidence-based, combines effective strategy instruction with self-regulated learning instruction
Components of Written Expression
Fluency, syntax, vocab development, structure development, content development
Handwriting without Tears
Practice daily, start with capital letters, model, use wet-dry-try method on chalkboard. Also uses wooden pieces.
Deliberately connects ideas, organization, diction, voice, fluency grammar and presentation
What are the 5 content standards in Math?
number and operations, algebra, geometry, measure, data analysis
What are the 5 process standards in Math?
Problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, representation
1-2 Grade Math
3-4 Grade Math
Multiplication & Divison
4-5 Grade Math
5 & 6 Grade Math
decimals & percentages
Readiness for Numbers Instruction
Classification, order, one-to-one correspondence, conservation
How many children perform below a basic level of achievement in math?
What are the direct influences on mathematics achievement of students with learning problems?
curriculum, teacher behavior and engagement
What is best sequence to use when teaching math?
concrete, semi concrete, abstract
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