APES Ch. 11 Ecosystem Capital: Use and Restoration

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Terms in this set (...)

Natural Ecosystems on Earth's Surface (Land/Ocean)
land area: 57.6 million square miles
ocean area: 172.6 million square miles
Services of Natural Ecosystems
modification of climate, maintenance of hydrological cycle, erosion control and soil building, maintenance of oxygen/nitrogen cycles, waste treatment, pest management, carbon storage/maintenance of carbon cycle
Wetland Services
valued at 100,000$ per acre per year.
water purification/fish propagation
Conservation
managing or regulating use so that it does not exceed the capacity of the species or system to renew itself
Preservation
ensure species or ecosystem continuity regardless of their potential utility
Tragedy of the Commons
begins with unregulated access to a resource owned by no one, harvest based on largest amount over the shortest period of time, no thought given to sustainable harvests, usually ends with no resource for anyone
Preventing Tragedy of the Commons
private ownership, regulated access (sustained benefits, fairness in access rights, common consent of the regulated)
Public Policy Principles to Protect Natural Resources
Natural resources cannot be treated as open commons. Sound science needed to assess health and level of resource use. Precautionary principle should be used in setting limits for exploitation. Regulations should be enforced. Economic incentives that encourage the violation of regulations should be eliminated. Subsidies that support exploitation should be removed. Suitable habitats for the resource should be preserved and protected from pollution. The sustenance needs of people living close to the resource should be met.
Restoration
repair the damage to specific land and waters so that normal ecosystem integrity, resilience, and productivity returns.
Forest Biomes
conserve biodiversity, moderate regional climates, prevent erosion, store carbon and nutrients, provide recreational opportunities, provide a number of vital goods.
Causes of Deforestation
conversion into pastures and agricultural lands
Even-Aged Management
clear cutting: no tree left behind
Uneven-Aged Management
selective cutting
Causes of Loss of Tropical Rainforests
colonization (consolidation of agricultural lands), huge national debts, fast food chains/cheap hamburger
Conserving Tropical Rainforests
ecotourism, extractive reserves, management by indigenous people, rubber plantations, sustainable logging
Sustainable Forest Management
manage for sustainable outcomes, teach others, protect health of forest, recognize and protect unique forest ecosystems, strive to be better forest managers
Ocean Ecosystems
Cover 75% of Earth's Surface
Global Fish Harvests
139 million metric tons by 2001
The Magnuson Conservation Act of 1976
gave federal government authority to manage fisheries, claimed the area between and 200 miles offshore as the "Exclusive Economic Zone", past 200 miles offshore photosynthesis isn't occurring as much (less food=less fish), designed to eliminate foreign fishing, designed to restore/conserve fish.
Sustainable Fisheries Act
(1996) reauthorization of the Mangnuson Act, mandates that fish stocks be rebuilt, management plans and yields be based on scientific data, steps be taken to minimize bycatch.
Factors that Restored Whale Populations
International Whaling Commission, Whale Watching
Mangroves
protects cost from storm damage and erosion, forms rich refuge and nursery for marine fish
Coral Reefs
important food sources for local people, wave erosion control, great diversity of marine vertebrates and invertebrates.
Sources of Damage to Coral Reefs
warm water, eutrophication, islander poverty, logging, shrimp aquaculture, coastal development
Wilderness Act of 1964
provides for permanent protection of undeveloped and unexploited areas so that natural ecological process can operate freely, preservation not conservation, 5% LAND AREA IN US
National Forests
only 5% of original US forests left, most US forests are second growth.
New Forestry=Ecosystem Management
cut trees less frequently, leave wider buffer zones along waterways, leave dead logs and debris, protect broader landscapes, build no new roads until damage to old ones is addressed.
Protecting Nonfederal Lands
land trust alliance, nature conservancy, trustees or reservations in Massachusetts.