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Africa and Americas

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Where was Ghana, Mali and songhi located?
Sahel: the savannah region just south of the sahara
What was the geography of Ghana?
1. West Africa
2. Between Niger and Gambia rivers
What was the government of Ghana?
1. Centralized power
2. Collected taxes using salt/gold
Economy of Ghana:
1. Conquered regions sold people as slaves to muslim trade
2. 800s controlled trade
3. Became rich by taxing goods that traders carried through their territory
Religion of Ghana
1. Animism
2. Islam passed through the empire but it didn't impact it tremendously
Mali
1230 rose to the same region as Ghana
Founders of Mali
Mande speaking people who lived in the South of Ghana
Geography of Mali
Territory: Niger river to the Atlantic ocean
Sundiata
King of Mali
-Ruled for 25 years
-Took over kingdom of Ghana and trading cities of Kumbi and Walata
-Golden age followed
Mansa Musa
1300s
1. Devout muslim
2. Expanded the empire twice the size of Ghana
3. Taxation of gold and salt created wealth
-Large army
4. Education flourished
-Hired achitects to build mosques, Muslim scholars to study in moracco to learn Arabic to unify the empire
-city timbuktu
Who is Itha Batuta?
A famous traveler
Songhi empire
1460; People of the East
-Built army and gained control of all the important trade routes
-Gao was capital
Sunni Ali:
1464-1494: Ruler of Songhi
1. Expanded Songhai into an empire
2. 1468 captured the city of Timbuktu
3. 1473, Sunni Ali took Djenne, a trading city that had a university
Askia Muhammed
Ruler of Songhi
-Took throne by overthrowing Sunni Ali's son
-Set up an efficient tax system ansd chose able officials
-Ruled with centralized government
Decline of Songhi empire
Lacked modern weapons, while other civilizations had it. When the Moroccan troops attacked, they quickly defeated them.
Mayan civilization
Heart of Mesoamerica
Geography of Maya
1. Yucatan peninsula in Central America
2. Southern Mexico to Central America
-Mountains, scrub forests, jungles, cool steamy weather
Classical period of Maya
250-900
-Built Tikal, a major center in northern Guatemala
City structure of Maya
1. Independent city state ruled by God king
2. Temples and palaces, where on top, priests performed religious ceremonies and sacrificed while people watched below
Religion of Maya
1. Polytheistic
2. Influenced most aspects in a mayans life and the calendars
3. Human sacrifice
Technology of Maya
1. Writing system, hieroglyphics
-Maya recorded their writing in a paper book, the codex; Popol Buh
2. Created a set of numerals
3. Concept of zero
4. 365 day calendar
5. Created architectural buildings that helped them figure out when a storm was coming
6. Created giant temples to make sacrifices to their gods
Decline of Maya
-Abandoned cities around 900 AD
-Archaeologists do not know why civilizations declined
Mesoamerica:
Where the maya and aztec lived
How people got there:
-Bering land bridge
-Coastal migration
Aztecs
The greatest empire in Mesoamerica
Geography of the Aztecs
The valley of Mexico in Central Mexico
What was the capital of the Aztecs?
Tenochitlan
1. Built on an island
-Connected to the mainland by causeways
2. Interlaced with a series of canals
Government of the Aztecs
1. Created an empire by conquest
-local rulers had to pau tribute to the Aztecs
2. Had an emperor
-Main job was to lead in war
Religion of the Aztecs
1. Polytheistic
2. Main god: Huitzilopochi
3. Built massive temples and pyramids dedicated to gods
4. Human sacrifices because it gave the sun strength to rise each day
Decline of the Aztecs
Did not know of guns and weapons
-Spanish conquisadors wee led by Hernan Cortes in 1521
Inca empire
Largest empire in the AMericas
Geography of the Incas
1. Valley of Cuzcos
2. Cuzco: capital in peru
Pachacuti
1. Ruler of Incas
2. Conquered all of peru and neighboring lands
3. Used force only when necessary
-allowed them conquered lands to keep their own customs and rulers in exchange for loyalty to the Incan state
Government of the Incas
1. Incan ruler and his council held court
2. Local administration was left in the hands of the local rulers
-Villages were able to continue local ways
-Chief led each group
3. Central Bureaucracy
4. Controlled most of the economic and social life
-Regulated production and distribution of goods
-Did not allow private trade
What unified the government to the empire?
1. Extensive road system
2. Quecha, official language
3. Religion with the belief that the sun god was the creator
Social system of the Incas
Mita: labor tribute
1. Requires all able bodies to work for the state for a certain number of days in a year
2. Citizens were expected to work for the state in exchange to be cared for
Technology of the Incas
1. Roads were built so that messages could be sent through out the land
-Guest houses to provide shelter
-Chasquis: postal service
2. They built their buildings by using marter and stone so they could withstand earthquakes
3. Calendar systems; two types
-one for day and one for night
-provided information about the gods
Common traits between the African groups
1. Clans: Groups of extended families who live together, tribe like
2. Animism: Spirits are present in the nature around you (plants, animals, dead ancestors)
3. No written language
4. Special storytellers (griots)
What was the geography for Djenne-Djeno
Located on the Niger river
The origin of Djenne-Djeno
- Dates to 250 BC - oldest known city in Africa
- Abandoned in 1400, relocated nearby
Achievements of Djenne-Djeno
Discovered pottery, toys, beads, jewelry, iron knives
Economy of Djenne-djeno
Strong trading Centers
-Water and camel trade routes
Kush Geography
1. Based around the Nile river
-Before Egyptian people
2. Nubia: Egyptian area and Southward
Kush: Under the rule of the Egyptians
Strong trading nation
-Animal skins, ivory, ebony, etc
-Gained freedom in 1000 BC
Kush: Conquered Egypt
750 BC
-Overthrown by the Assyrians in 663 BC because of poor weaponry
Economy of the Kush
1. Farmed a little
2. Dominated trading
-traded items and slaves
3. Material wealth was abundant for most classes
Technology of the Kush
Created iron weapons
When did the Kush flourish?
250 BC-150 AD
Why did the the Kush decline?
the rise of Axum
Axum geography
1. Located in current day Ethiopia
2. Arab and African foundations
-Legends states that founders were descnedants of king Solomon
-Truth: 1000 BC, the Arabs intermingled with the Kushiro herders
3. Location was along the trading routes to India and Mediterranean
-Made Axum prosper
City of Adulias
1. City in Axum
2. Strong trading center
3. Reached height in 300s
4. Diverse culture
Religion of Axum
1. Believed in the god Mahrem and king was direct descendant
-Offered sacrifices especially to the god of war, Ares
-330 AD, conversion to christianity , later Islam made a lot of changes
Decline of Axum
4th century, Axum was invaded by Islamic peoples
East Africa
1. Strong Islamic influence
2. Wealthy
3. Bantu: Speaking language made of multiple languages
4. Subsistence farming: Growing crops for personal use, not for market sale
South Africa
1. Stateless societies: Independent villages joined to create states
2. Grazing and farming
3. Declined to over cultivation
Great Zimbabwe
1300-1450
1. In South Africa
2. Wealthiest/most powerful
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