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111 terms

english final

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tone
attitude. Speaker's attitude toward the subject or topic. Influences the reader's attitude tpward the subject and the speaker.
intonation
the way something is said
satiric poetry
blends criticism with humor to convey a point, often conveying a message by ridiculing a person or group and/or some aspect of human behavior
persona
the fictitious character that is invented by the poet to be the speaker of the poem
irony
implies a discrepancy
verbal irony
character says something but means something else
sarcasm
an extreme form or verbal irony in which the comment is conspicuosly sharp or better
situational irony
readers expect a certain outcome but something else happens suprising the readers
dramatic irony
when the character says something to the audience but the audience already knows more
tragic irony
another name for dramatic irony
cosmic irony or irony of fate
when the fates or fate seems to have a cruel sense of humor and use it to conspire against human beings
image
a word or sequence of words that refer to any sensory experience
visual imagery
sight
auditory imagery
sound
tactile imagery
touch
olfactory imagery
smell
imagery
all images in a given poem or text taken together
haiku
17 syllable japanese poem, 5-7-5 syllables, captures the intensity of a single moment linking two concrete images. tends to be seasonal
imagism
movement founded by Pound and inspired by HD which put forth the idea that the poem was the image.
Coleridge's distinction between prose and poetry
prose is "words in their best order" while poetry is "the best words in the best order"
explication
literally unfolding- the entire poem is explained in detail, adressing every element and unraveling the complexity as a means of analysis
symbol
something that suggests something larger more complex
conventional symbol
symbols traditionally recognized as having a standard meaning. ex..red rose symbolizes love
iconography
the visual or pictorial representation of a symbol..ex..crown representing royalty beyong just being a round metal be-jeweled hat
symbolic act
an action whos significance goes beyond its literal meaning
allegory
presents an abstract idea through concrete means...two parts: surface story, the larger meaning it suggests
parable
a short realistic illustrative story intended to teach a moral or religious lesson, a type of allegory. written in responce to to specific situations and address those situations allegorically
figurative language
describes one thing by relating it to something else
figures of speech
poetic language that relies not on literal meaning but on connotations, suggestions, and, most often comparisons
simile
comparison between unlike objects using like or as
metaphor
comparisond between to unlike things that does not use like or as but uses the verb to be
implied metaphor
metaphor that does not use the verb to be, instead the reader has to take an extra step to understand the comparison
extended metaphor
when the entirety of the poem is one long, involved metaphor
pun
play on words. reminds us of another word or words that are similar in sound but have a different denotation
apostrophe
direct adress to a person or object not usually spoken to. Could be an inanimate object, a person dead or absent, an abstraction. Dramatizes nonhuman things in human terms
hyperbole
exaggeration, overstatement
personification
bestowing humnan characterstics on an inhuman or inanimate object
understatement
opposite of hyperbole, this technique is ironic and creates emphasis in the other direction, by minimizing the importance or granduer of a given subject
metonymy
Figure of speech in which the name of the thing is substituted for that of another, closely related thing
synecdoche
a part of the whole represents all of it, or the whole represents a part
paradox
a seemingly contradictory statement which upon further examination turns out to be somehow accurate. often achieved through play on words
oxymoron
a condensed form of a paradox in which two apparently contradictory words are used together
onomatopoeia
words whose pronunciations mirror actual sounds, like buzz
euphony
harmonious effect of words that are put together in a pleasing way, reflects the themes of the poem
cacophony
words that are harsh and discordant
alliteration
repetition of initial consonant sounds
consonance
linked words share similar consonant sounds but different vowel sounds
assonance
repetition of vowel sounds, makes kind of rhyme-y sound (oo)
exact rhyme
full rhyme, initial consonant sound is different but the rest of the words rhyme exactly or perfectly
near rhyme
words that are close to being a rhyme but slightly off
end rhyme
rhymes occuring at the end of the poetic line
masculine rhyme
rhyming of single syllable words
feminine rhyme
rhyme in which each rhymes word has a stresses syllable and then one or more unstressed syllable following it
eye rhyme
words that look like they should rhyme according to their spelling
internal rhyme
rhyme that occurs within the line of poetry rather than at the end of the line
eye rhyme
spellings look alike but pronunciations differ, as in dough and bough
rhythm
pattern of stresses and pauses in poetry
prosody
the study in metrical structures in poetry
meter
recurrent, regular, rhythmic pattern in verse, involving the stressed and unstressed syllables of words
scansion
analyzing and describing the rhythmic patterns that make up lines of poetry by breaking them down into metrical feet, counting syllables, marking accents, and indicating pauses
stress/ accent
emphasis placed on a syllable in speech...stress is the basic principle of meter
unstressed syllables/ slack
syllables: those syllables that do not get emphasis in speech
caesura
pause within a line or verse. often in the middle, and often accompanied by punctuation
end-stopped line
a line of poetry that ends with a piece of punctuation to indicate a stop or pause of some sort
enjambment
running together of lines of poetry from one to the next without any pause at the end of a line
foot
basic unit of measurement in metrical poetry
iambic
a syllable metrical foot that looks like: IAMB = unaccented ACCENTED (bal/oon) U/
iambic pentameter
most common meter in Engish language. 5 iambic feet per line. Shakespear wrote most of his plays in iambic pentameter
dactyl
a 3 syllable metrical foot....ACCENTED unaccented unaccented
trochee
a 2 syllable metrical foot that looks like ACCENTED unaccented
anapest
a metrical foot that looks like this: ACCENTED ACCENTED
closed form
poetry written in some pre existing pattern of meter, rhyme, line, or stanza. Includes sonnets, sestinas, villanelles, ballads
open form
verse that has no set or pre existing formal pattern
free verse
poetry that is written without metrical regularity, usually unrhymed
blank verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter
rhyme scheme
the [attern of rhyme found in a given piece
couplet
2 line stanza in poetry usually rhymed which often has lines of equal lenght
closed couplet
type of couplet where the two line stanza rhymes and the lines convey a complete thought
heroic couplet
closed couplet written in rhymed iambic pentameter
tercet
a stanza with 3 lines
triplet
a tercet in which three lines rhyme
terza rima
a closed form made up of 3 line stanzas with an overlapping rhyme scheme; aba bcb cdc ded efe
quatrain
4 line stanza
ballad stanza
most common pattern: 4 lines rhymed abcb. Falls into 8-6-8-6 syllables
common meter
has two pairs of rhymes and is the same as the ballad stanza
syllabic verse
poems written so that each line contains a certain number of syllables
English (Shakespearean) sonnet
3 quatrains + couplet; abab cdcd efef gg
Italian (Petrarchan) sonnet
octave + sestet abba abba + cdecde or cdccdc or cdcdcd almost any rhyme scheme goes in the sestet Except a couplet
Octave
8 line stanza
Sestet
6 line stanza
epigram
short often comic or biting poem that offers a witty turn of though or meaning
limerick
closed form marked by 5 anapestic lines rhyming aabba. Lines 1,2 and 5 traditionally have three stressed syllables each, while lines 3 and 4 have two stresses each
abecedary
closed form in which poems in some way use the complete alphabet in order
acrostic
closed form in which the first letter of each line spells out a word of phrase when read vertically
villanelle
closed form containing 6 rhymed stanzas in which two lines are repeated in specific pattern
sestina
closed form of 39 lines composed of 6 line stanzas and a 3 line envoy. 6 stanzas, 6 end words are repeated according to a specific pattern. after these first 6 6 line stanzas, the final 3 line stanza, or envoy, finishes the poem by using all 6 of the repeated end words from the first 6 stanza.
pantoum
a closed form that can be any lenght; the key to the form is the use of 4 line stanzas. the 2nd and 4th lines of the each stanza are used as the first and third line of the following stanza. often the last line is the same as the first
elegy
a sad, meditative poem usually written to mark a death or some other solemn occasion, usually written in a very formal style
visual poetry
the shape of the poem in some way reflects the meaning
prose poetry
poetry in which the poet prints their poem in block, paragraph form and the poem is composed of sentences rather then lined poem
concrete poetry
designs or pictures made from letters and words. these poems do not have meaningful messages; instead shapes of the letters to creat pictures
refrain
words, phrases, or lines repeated in intervals throughout the song
ballad
song that tells a story. Originally an oral verse form. compressed, dramatic, objective
terminal refrain
repeated after each stanza
incremental refrain
repeated within the stanza, generally in fized position
folk ballad
tells a story that is evolved over time by who sang them
ballad stanza
most common pattern: 4 lines rhymed abcb. falls into 8-6-8-6 syllabels
common meter
has two pairs of rhymes and is the same as the ballad stanza otherwise
literary ballad
ballad meant to be read not sung
blues
type of folk music, 3 line stanzas, with lines 1 and 2 being the same and the 3rd line being different but end rhyming with lines 1 and 2
rap
type of music with spoken lyrics to a rhythmic and driving beat