91 terms

Middle Ages

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Clovis
king of Franks; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting to Christianity (496); ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy
Charles Martel
leader of the Franks at the battle of Tours; victory over Muslims; stopped Muslim advancements into Europe
Pepin the Short
son of Charles Martel; father of Charlemagne; defeated the Lombards; started the Carolingian dynasty
Charlemagne
- "Charles the Great"
- grandson of Charles Martel, son of Pepin the Short
- ruled 768-814, king of the Franks
- conquered all of Western Europe (except England and Scandinavia) under a Christian kingdom
- fought with Muslims, Saxons, Avars, Slavs, Lombards, Bavarians, and Huns
- viewed himself as God's annointed leader who needed to help people achieve salvation (prevent people from going to hell)
- goal: Christendom
- reformed the clergy and appointed religious leaders
- supported by Pope Leo III
- earned titles: Augustus, Emperor of the Romans, "New David"
- crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by the pope
Gregory VII
pope who fought to establish the supremacy of the pope over the Church and the supremacy of the Church over the state (popes vs monarchs); caused controversy; banned process of lay investiture (appointment of bishops by anyone outside of the clergy) to avoid giving power to those who are secular; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV
Hildegard of Bingen
from a noble family; founded an abbey and became an Abbess; composed religious music and wrote books/plays
Eleanor of Aquitaine
politically influential wife of King Louis VII of France and later of King Henry II of England; mother of King Richard, the Lion-heart
St. Francis of Assisi
- in the beginning: wild, fun, unruly "player" who often led his friends into trouble
- captured as a POW for a year; developed severe case of malaria (life changing experience); no longer wanted to be a "player"
- renounced his wealthy merchant father b/c God was his "new, true father"
- treated lepers (w/ leprosy disease) which were often seen as outcasts or sinners
- birds (who were usually noisy) quieted down and "listened" to him preach when no one else would
- lived a simple life of poverty, humility, and love of God
- founded the first order of friars: Franciscans
Geoffrey Chaucer
poet and author of the Canterbury Tales (1387-1400)
- Canterbury Tales - a series of poems describing the pilgrimage of 29 men and women to the tomb of St. Thomas Becket in Canterbury; includes detailed descriptions of various social classes
Thomas Becket
the archbishop of Canterbury' close friend of Henry who later opposed his attempt to bring Church clergy into the royal court system; murdered by Henry's knights and later declared a saint by the Church
Medieval Era (Middle Ages)
500-1500; period of history between ancient and modern times in Europe
"Dark Ages"
reference because from 500-1000, Western Europe was lacking politically, socially, and economically; cut off from Middle East, China, India

MISNOMER: Charlemagne cared about past literature + arts, did NOT lose touch with history, Greco-Roman + Germanic + Christian traditions = new civilization ... correct term for this time period: Middle Ages
Franks
a Germanic tribe that conquered present day France and neighboring lands in the 400s; conquered Rome along with other Germanic tribes (Goths, Vandals, Saxons)

- farmers, herders
- no cities or codified law
- small communities with unwritten customs
- kings were elected by tribal councils
- warrior's loyalty = weapons and $
Battle of Tours
battle in 732 in which the Christian Franks led by Charles Martel defeated Muslim armies and stopped the Muslim advance into Europe
Christendom
a united Christian community
missi dominici
- officials that Charlemagne sent to check on provincial rulers (the ones he appointed to govern local areas)
- job of missi dominici: check on roads, listen to grievances, see justice
- Charlemagne's instructions: "administer the law fully and justly in the case of the holy churches of God and of the poor..and the whole people."
Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle)
- capital city of Charlemagne's Empire
- located near the Rhine River and hot springs, part of modern France
- established the Palace School @ Aachen (director = Alcuin of York, a respected scholar; curriculum included grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy)
Magyars
nomadic peoples from Hungary; invaded Europe
Vikings
sailors from Scandinavia invaded Europe from the 700s to 1100s; broke the last thread of unity in Charlemagne's empire; also traders + explorers; often mixed with locals
Scandinavia
Norway, Sweden, Denmark; where the Vikings originated
Valhalla
(Norse mythology) the hall in which Odin received the souls of slain heroes; Viking paradise/heaven where there were abundances of feasts, liquor, and daily fights
longships
Viking's technological advantage; used these as raiding warships; fast and maneuverable; long and skinny; traveled along coastlines because the vessels were meant for shallow waters; vessels rest on surface of the water; one ship can carry 180 warriors
feudalism
loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord
main reasons for feudalism
1. To provide security (military contract system, vassals = loyalty)
2. To bring people closer to God (3 estates)
- 1st estate: CHURCH "Pray"
- 2nd estate: NOBLES/LORDS/ARISTOCRATS "Fight"
- 3rd estate: PEASANTS/SERFS "Work"
Church hierarchy
Pope
Cardinals (Curia)
Archbishops (Archdiocese)
Bishops (Diocese)
Priests (Parish)
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Deacons (not part of hierarchy)
Curia
the central administration governing the Roman Catholic Church
Archdiocese
the diocese of an archbishop
Diocese
church region controlled by bishop
Parish
a local church community (priests)
Noble hierarchy
Monarch
Dukes
Earls
Barons
Knights
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Squires (not nobility, but in training to become a knight)
vassal
noble who was given a fief (land) from a greater lord in exchange for loyalty
feudal contract
exchange of pledges between lords and vassals
Obligations of Lord to Vassal
- fief (land, buildings, workers)
- protection
Obligations of Vassal to Lord
- loyalty
- military service
- certain fees
- advice
Obligations of Lord to Peasants
- use of land for farming
- protection
- could not force them off the land
Obligations of Peasants to Lord
- money and/or crops as rent
- labor on lord's lands
- certain fees
- obedience
primogeniture
right of inheritance (of property) belongs exclusively to the eldest son
fief
grant of land
coat of arms
the official symbols of a family, state, etc. on knights' armor and war banners (shields, flags)
knight
a European noble who served as a mounted noble
trial by battle
AKA trial by combat
- fight between champions (representative knights) from opposing sides
- believed that God governed each trial by combat (He would make sure that the good/innocent side would win)
compurgation
AKA trial by oath
- oath taking; each side would try to get as many people to "swear" that they were innocent / other person was guilty - person with most oaths wins
- if they have "broken" (lied, found to have stolen loot, etc) their oath, they will never be trusted again - reputation = ruined
trial by ordeal
- only tests the accused
- must endure a lot of pain (ex: carry red hot metal, pull a ring from a pot of boiling water)
- thought that God would protect the innocent; if the innocent was truly innocent, they would be able to withstand a lot of physical pain
castles
large homes built by lords to defend against attacks; security in times of war; very common; moats; heavily fortified; expensive to build
*not governed by the laws of chivalry
offensive tactics (assault castle)
bow+arrow, catapults, rams, ladders, siege towers, bridges
defensive tactics (protect castle)
tumble large rocks onto opponents, knock over ladders, pour boiling water/oil onto opponents, quicklime
tournaments
mock battles that knights would compete to display their fighting skills
- started around 1100 when there weren't many real wars b/c knights were bored and wanted to fight
- military training became a sport
- goal was to capture, not kill
- governed by the laws of chivalry (ex: it was a foul if you aimed for the opponent's horse)
chivalry
code of conduct for knights
- developed because knights mistreated people earlier

1. Honesty - keeping one's word
2. Courage - fighting evil no matter what
3. Compassion - respect "inferiors" (women, Jews)
4. Courtesy - being polite (bowing)
5. Courtly Love - love from afar (don't force yourself upon women)
6. Etiquette - table manners, ability to control emotions
troubadours
wandering poet/singer
- 12th century (1100s) poets "set to music"
- travel and sing
- first poems in vernacular (everyday) speech
- changed view of women
- romanticized the concept of love (as opposed to marriage solely to improve social status/wealth and to have children)
- celebrated adulterous love (affairs to be with the one you truly love)
* Ivanhoe was disguised as one in the beginning of the movie
manor
the mansion of the lord of the manor
- harsh, poor conditions by modern standards
- largely self-sufficient; relied on themselves for everything (food, clothes, etc.)
- seen in Ivanhoe: benches, tables, chairs, fireplace, chalices, etc.
serfs
a person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times; peasants were bound (legally, economically, socially) to the land by the feudal contract
Role of the Church
1. Daily Life
- mass, sacraments, religious calendar, aid to needy, moral guidance
2. Economic Power
- owned large tracts of land (Papal States), people willed riches to Church (tithe), agricultural and commercial activity took place in monasteries
3. Political Power
- papal supremacy, threat of excommunication & interdict, raised own armies, clergy served in governments, moral authority
pilgrimage
a journey to a sacred or holy place
EX: In the Canterbury Tales, the men and women are making a pilgrimage to the tomb of St. Thomas Becket
sacraments
sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church; believed that participation in the sacraments would lead to salvation (everlasting life with God)
relics
body parts, clothing and objects associated with a holy figure
transsubstantiation
the theological term that names the change of bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ
tithe
pay a tenth of one's income to the church (church tax)
cathedrals
large Christian churches; principal church of bishop's diocese; often built in Romanesque or Gothic architecture
bishop
high Church official (part of clergy) responsible for everyone in his diocese; considered in some churches to be the successors of the 12 apostles of Christ
clergy
church officials
laity
regular church members who are not clergy
monastery
AKA abbey/convent
a religious community of monks devoted to prayer and worship of God; monks also worked and studied there (ex: worked in fields, copied/decorated manuscripts)
illuminated manuscript
a manuscript with elaborate lettering and detailed pictures; copied by hand by monks
Benedictine Rule
rules drawn up in 530 by Benedict (a monk) which regulated monastic life. The Rule emphasizes obedience, poverty, and chastity; it divides the day into periods of worship, work, and study
Abbot
the superior of an abbey of monks
secular
worldly; not religious
papal supremacy
medieval popes claimed that they had authority over all secular rulers (kings, emperors)

- pope is the vicar of Christ ("earthly rep of God")
- leader of Catholic (universal) Church rejecting the Orthodox view that he simply has "primacy" (being first in importance)
- controls church doctrine (codification of beliefs); papal infallibility (pope cannot be wrong) has been claimed since 1870
- appoints members of the Church hierarchy to office
- head of state of the sovereign Holy See (worldwide Church)
- makes decisions about Church $, missionary work, stance peace, and social justice
canon law
body of laws of a church
(primarily made for the purpose of saving souls of sinners; not really for the purpose of increasing/keeping order or punishing opponents)
excommunication
banishment from the Church as a penalty for disobeying Church laws; could not receive sacraments or Christian burial - this condemned to hell for eternity
interdict
- if the ruler (often a powerful noble) does not obey Church law, the interdict forbids the ruler's entire town/region/kingdom from participating in religious activities
- not allowed to receive sacraments or Christian burial
- interdicts caused revolts from the common people b/c they were being condemned to hell by their ruler
- ruler often gave in and obeyed Church law rather than having to face the interdict
Truce of God
rule forbidding warfare on holy days
friars
monks who did not live in isolated monasteries; traveled from place to place and preached to the poor

* St. Francis of Assisi founded the first order of friars (the Franciscans)
ghetto
- during the Middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews
- now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority live because of social, legal, or economic pressure
Agricultural Revolution
1. Iron plow replaces wood plow in 800s - stronger, cheaper, makes farming easier and more efficient
2. New harness allows for use of horses instead of oxen while farming (benefit b/c horses are faster)
3. Lord has peasants clear land in order to boost agricultural production (both parties benefit)
4. Three-field system restored fertility of the land; every year, the fields would rotate/exchange positions (ex: 1 field for wheat, 1 for barley, 1 for fallow/grazing)
5. Population exploded (increased 3x)

- gains in productivity led to village markets and medieval fairs
town
place where trade is constant (permanent fair)
Champagne
east of Paris (in northeastern France); site of most famous fairs of the 12th and 13th centuries; produced white sparkling wine
"trade triangle"
trade between England, Flanders, France
England - sheep → wool
Flanders - cloth + dye
France - vineyards → wine (Champagne)
charter
a written document that set out the rights and privileges of a town
- merchants asked local lords or king himself to issue a charter in order to protect their interests (of maintaining a town)
- in return, merchants paid a large sum of money, annual fees, or both
- most charters declared that anyone who lived in the town for one year and one day was free (very popular with runaway serfs)
capital
money used to invest in business or enterprise
partnership
a group of merchants who joined together to finance a large-scale venture that would have been too costly for any individual trader
tenant farmer
someone who would pay rent to a lord to farm part of the lord's land
middle class
the social class between nobles and peasants; include merchants, artisans, traders
medieval European peddler
- part of middle class
- traveled around selling goods/wares
- include merchants, artisans
guild
an association of merchants/artisans who cooperated to uphold standards of their trade and to protect their economic interests
(merchant guilds vs artisan guilds sometimes caused riots)
- limited guild membership to prevent competition
- operated schools and hospitals
- looked after members' families
merchant guild
- dominated town life
- passed laws and levied taxes
- decided how to spend funds to improve town life
artisan guild
- craft guilds
- each guild represented one specific occupation (weavers, bakers, goldsmiths)
apprentice
young person (usually at age 7-8) learning trade from a master; 7 years to learn the trade; few became guild master unless related
journeyman
salaried worker employed by a guild master
- accused guild master of giving low salary so they could not open their own shops to compete
Results of Trade
- warfare decreases
- travel becomes safer
- desire for foreign goods increases (people become more materialistic)
- trade fairs develop
- towns and cities grow
Towns & Middle Class
- as towns grow, merchants gain power
- powerful guilds form
- modern business practice develop
- the middle class gains power
- trade and commerce gain importance
The European Union
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