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Information Rights Management (IRM)

Software that offers capability not only to limit access to specific files or documents but also to specify the actions that individuals who are granted access to that resource can perform.

Data Loss Prevention DLP)

Software which works like antivirus programs in reverse, blocking outgoing messages that contain key words or phrases associated with intellectual property or other sensitive data that an organization wants to protect.

Digital Watermark

Code embedded in documents that enables an organization to identify confidential information that has been disclosed. A digital watermark is a detective control and organizations should investigate how a compromise occurred and take appropriate corrective action

Data masking

A program that protects privacy by replacing customers personal information with fake values before sending that data to the program development and testing system.


An unsolicited email that contains either advertising or offensive content.

Identity theft

Assuming someone identity usually for economic gain, by illegally obtaining confidential information.


A text file created by a web site and stored on a vistors hard drive. Stores information about who the user is and what the user has done on the website.


The process of transforming normal text called plaintext into unreadable gibberish called ciphertext.Encryption is particularly important when confidential date is being transmitted from remote terminals.


Normal text that has not be encrypted .


Plaintext that was transformed into unreadable gibberish using encryption.


Transformins ciphertext back into plaintext

Key escrow

The process of storing a copy of an encryption key in a secure location.

Symmetric encryption systems

Encryption systems that use the same key both to encrypt and decrypt.

Asymmetric encryption systems

An approach to encryption that uses two keys, a public and a private key. Either the public or private key can be used to encode a message but only the other key can be used to decode.

Public key

A publicly available key for encryption

Private key

A key that is kept secret and known only by the owner


Transforming plaintext of any length into a short code called a hash.


Plaintext that has been transformed into a short code.

Non repudiation

Creating legally binding agreements that cannot be unilaterally repudiated by either party.

Digital signature

A piece of data signed on a document by a computer. Cannot be forged and is useful in tracing authorization.

Digital certificate

An electronic document created and digitally signed by a trusted third party that certifies the identity of the owner of a particular public key. The signature contains the party's public key.

Certificate authority

An independent organization that issues public and private keys and records the public key in a digital certificate.

Public key infrastructure

An approach to encryption that uses two keys, a public and a private key. Either the public or private key can be used to encode a message but only the other key can be used to decode.

Virtual private network

A network that controls access to an extranet using encryption and authentication technology.

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