45 terms

Grammar

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Subject-Verb Agreement
Means that the subject of a clause matches the verb in number.
Plural subjects must have plural verbs. Singular subjects must have singular verbs
Phrase Following the Subject.
Pay close attention to the subject of the sentence. Do not be misled by phrases that may follow the subject. Phrases may confuse you into selecting a verb that does not agree with the subject.
Subject Following the Verb.
Locate the subject of the sentence first. Sentence constructions that begin with there is or there are signal that the subject comes after the adverb.
Special Singular Nouns.
Some words that end in s, like measles, news, checkers, sports, and politics, are often singular despite their plural form.
Pronoun Agreement
Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns. If a noun is singular, the pronoun must be singular. If a noun is plural, the pronoun must be plural.
Indefinite Pronouns
Like each, everyone, anybody, on one, one, and either are singular.
Ex. EACH of the boys presented his science project.
Two or More Nouns Joined by "and"
Use a plural pronoun.
Ex. Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtensteain engaged popular culture in THEIR art.
Two or More singular nouns joined by "or"
Use a singular pronoun.
Ex. Francis or Andrew will lend you HIS book.
Past Tense for Present Conditions
It's incorrect to describe a present condition in the past tense.
Ex. My sister met her husband in a cafe. He was very tall. (X)
Ex. My sister met her husband in a face, He is very tall. (C)
Incomplete Verbs
Progressive form of a verb without a helping verb. Make sure that verbs are complete and make sense in the sentence.
Subjunctive Mood
The subjunctive mood of verbs expresses something that is imagined, wished for, or contrary to fact. The subjunctive of was is were.
Participle
Is a word that is usually associated as a verb but is used as an adjective. Because participles act as adjectives, they modify nouns or pronouns. Most of the time participle will end in- ing or-ed.
Infinitive
Is a verb in the form "to" + "verb", such as "to live".
Types of Writing
1. Narrative
2.Persuasive
3.Journaling
4.Instructional
5.Comparative
6. Reflective
7. Expository
8. Descriptive
Traits of Writing
1. Tone
2. Purpose
3. Audience
Stages of the Writing Process
1. Explore (prewrite)
2. Draft
3. Edit
4. Publish.
Stages of Writing Development
1. Picture Writing
2. Scribble Writing
3. Random Letter
4. Invented Spelling
5. Conventional Writing.
Simple Sentence
Has one independent clause and no dependent clauses.
Ex. I enjoyed taking a walk with you.
Compound Sentence
Combines multiple independent clauses in the sentences, but it has no dependent clauses. E
Ex. Abby looked into the mirror, and she did not like what she saw.
Complex Sentence
Has one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
Ex. After sitting in the airplane for eight hours, Maryanne realized that she desperately needed to stretch her legs.
Compound-Complex Sentence
Combines multiple independent clauses in the sentence, as well as at least one dependent clause.
Ex. Franklin D. Roosevelt is often considered one of the country's greatest presidents; because he served during WW2, Roosevelt's leadership was critically important to the future of his nation.
Sentence Fragment
a sentence missing a subject or verb or complete thought
Ex. At some point, I'm going to have to find a new job. Because the one I have now is driving me crazy.
Declarative Sentence
Makes a declaration. Every declarative sentence ends in a period.
A sentence that makes a statement.
Interrogative Sentence
Asks a question and ends in a question mark.
Ex. What is for dinner?
Exclamatory Sentence
Sentence includes an exclamation.
Imperative Sentence
Sentence gives a command. It can end with a period or exclamation mark.
Ex. Please enjoy my homemade soup.
Orthography
Describes the proper way to use a writing system of language, including proper spelling.
Morphology
Describes the structure of words and their parts, including morphemes.
Morpheme
Is the smallest unit of sound with meaning.
Affexes
Is a morpheme that is attached to the stem of a word, creating an entirely new word.
Prefix
Is the beginning part of the word that helps identify its meaning.
Ex. Tripod: Tri is the prefix
Suffix
Is the ending part of the word that helps identify its meaning.
Ex. Jobless: Less is the suffix meaning that the subject is without a job.
Root
Main part of a word that gives it the meaning, without any prefixes or suffixes.
Ex. Disinterested is interest.
Semantics
Represents the specific meaning, or meanings, of a word in a written language.
Antonym
Is a word that has an opposite meaning.
Ex. Tall-> Short
Synonym
Is a word that has the same meaning as another word.
Ex. Use-> Utilize
Idiom
Is a word or group of words that cannot be interpreted literally.
Ex. As easy as pie.
Homonym
Is a word that sounds like another but has a different spelling and meaning.
Ex. Accept-> Except.
Figurative Language
Language that cannot be taken literally since it was written to create a special effect or feeling. Mostly used in literature.
Simile
Makes a comparison using like or as:
Ex. Your eyes are like shining sapphires.
Metaphor
Is more powerful, it makes the comparison directly
Ex. Your eyes are shining sapphires.
Personification
Is the attribution of human characteristics to animals or objects.
A figure of speech in which the author presents or describes concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions.
Imagery
Is the representation of sensory experience through language.
Symbolism
A person, place or object which has a meaning in itself but suggests other meanings as well
Style
More than figurative language, it is the overall manner of writing, including sentence structure of and the level of formality, which is managed through word choice.

Flickr Creative Commons Images

Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.
Click to see the original works with their full license.