56 terms

Chapter 2 - Friedland and Relyea

STUDY
PLAY
Matter
anything that occupies spacd and has mass
Mass
measure of the amount of matter it contains
Atom
the smallest particle that can contain the chemical properties of an element
Element
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
Periodic Table
lists all of the elements currently
Molecules
Particles comtaining more than one atom
Compounds
Molecules that comtain more than one element
Atomic Number
the number of protons in the nucleus of a particular element
Mass number
total number of protons and neutrons in an element is known at its
Isotopes
Various kinds of atoms are called
Radioactive Decay
The spontaneous release of material from the nucleus
Half-life
the time it takes for one half of the orginial radioactive parent atoms to decay
Covalent Bonds
componds are said to be held togther by
ionic bonds
the attraction between oppositely charged ions forms a chemical bond called
Hydrogen Bond
weak chemical bond that forms when hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded to one atom are attracted to another atom on another molecule
Polar Molecule
one side is more positive and the otherside is more negative
Surface Tension
results from cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water and creates a sort of skin on the waters
Capillary Action
happens when adhesion of water molecules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the molecules
Acid
a substance that contibutes hydrogen ions to a solution
Base
a substance that contributes hydroxide ions to a solution
pH
a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is
chemical reaction
A change in which one or more substances are converted into new substances.
Law of conservation of matter
which states that matter connot be created or destroyed; it can only change form
Inorganic Compounds
Are compouds that either do not contain the elemnt carbon or do not contain carbon, but only carbon bound to elements other that hydrogen
Organic Compounds
are compounds that have carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds
Carbohydrates
are compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen aroms
Proteins
are made up of long chains of nitrogen-containing organic molecules called amino acids
Nucleic Acids
Organic compounds found in all living cells
DNA
the genetic material organisms pass on to their offspring that contains te code for reproducing the components of the next generation
RNA
Translates the code stored in the DNA and allows for the synthesis of proteins
lipids
are smaller biological molecules that do not mix with water
Cell
highly organized living entity that consists of the four types of macromolecules and other sunstances in a watery solutions, surrounded by a membrane
Energy
The abiloty to do work, or transfer heat
Electromagnetic Radiation
a form of energy that includes, but is not limited to, visible light ultraviolet light, and infrared energy, which we perceive as heat
Photons
A massless packet of energy that carries electromagnetic radiation at the speed of light
Joule
the amount of energy used when a 1-watt light bulb is turned on for 1 second- a very small amount
Power
the rate at which work is done
potential energy
stored energy that has not been released
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
Energy
ability to do work, or transfer heat
chemical energy
potential energy stored in chemical bonds is
temperature
measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance
First law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed
Second law of thermodynamics
when energy is converted from one form to another (transformed), the quantity of energy is the same, but some energy gets lost as heat (ability to do work)
energy efficiency
the ratio of the amount of work that is done to the total amount of energy that is introduced into the system in the first place
energy quality
the ease with which an energy source can be used for work
entropy
randomness in a system
open system
echanges of matter or energy occur across system boundries
closed system
matter and energy exchanges across system boundries do not occur
inputs
additions to a given system
outputs
losses from the system
system analysis
an analysis to determine inputs, outputs, and changes in a system under various conditions
steady state
whether inputs equal outputs, so that the system is not changing over time
feedback
the results of a process feed back into the system to change the rate of that process
negative feedback loops
a feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or at least by decreasing the rate at which the change is occuring
positive feedback loop
feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...