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PSY Exam 3 (CH 7)
The Knowing Mind
Terms in this set (31)
What is memory?
system of cognition allowing us to retain knowledge
What is encoding?
picking up information from the environment and forcing it into memory (doesn't guarantee long lasting)
What is storage?
long period of time, retained memories
What is retrieval?
after storage, re-extract memory; doesn't mean retrieved as stored
What is recall?
name something strictly for memory; more difficult- need more activation/energy to retrieve
In Atkinson-Shiffrin Model, what is sensory memory?
fading message/ echo coming from sensory receptors
What is short-term/working memory?
automatically picking up stimuli; workshop of consciousness; actively processing; if no action is taken, it will last ~30s
What is long-term memory?
permanent, always there (but doesn't mean its in idealized form); if in short term memory and tend to it, it will go to long-term
What is the timing for short-term and long-term memory?
Short-term memory: it will last ~30 seconds if not tended; always picking up stimuli
Long-term memory: stays in memory; faster learning process once in memory
What is the Sperling Study?
tried to work with sensory memory. Sperling thought the brain was doing more if the stimuli hits all the photoreceptors. He had a set of 12 letters & asked participants to recall them a second later. He paried a row of letters with a tone
What are the limitations of working memory? Chunking? Rehearsal?
Limitations: time and capacity; George Miller's Magical No. of things able to remember (7 +/- 2)
Chunking: grouping similar information together
Rehearsal: practicing the information to help retain the information but rehearsing doesn't help with long term but it does keep it in short-memory.
What is the Brown- Peterson Technique?
Argued that short-term memory is shorter than 30 seconds. Working memory isn't simple, its complex. He asked them to count backwards and remember the 3 letters he assigned.
In the Baddley Model, what is the phonological loop?
commonly associated with verbal & auditory
What is the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
learn space; brief image
What is an episodic buffer?
stores complex episodes, scenes, eventas; combines phonologcial loop & visuo-spatial sketchpad.
What is the central executive?
it is the oversight center; what ou should listen to, etc. It is not for storage.
What is the definition of primacy?
items at the beginning of the list are more memorable than the words in the middle of the list
Recency Effect is...
the most recent in working memory
What did Herman Ebbinghaus research and find?
He used himself as the subject; defined thousands of 3-letter words that weren't words (DAK, etc); then took the list and studied them to retina them in his memory until he mastered them. Then he puts them away for a while and wanted to see how long it took to retrieve the words. He made the forgetting curve- 1st day is when you lose the most information and the savings curve is when you relearn the list/task at an easier pace and learning speeds up. He learned that there are ways to improve memory.
What is massed vs distributed practice?
Massed/cramming- not able to consolidate the information; sleep on it
Distributed- spread the information out within a period
What are the parts of levels of processing? Explain.
appearance- when looking at words, we can look at font, size, all caps, number of letters, etc.
language: the sound of the word
What are other memory improvements?
Testing: teach someone; the body knows what to look for and prepares to think of it
Sleeping: sleep on it
Reciting & Explaining: teach someone
What is semantic declarative memory?
devoid of context; factual; don't know who, where, how, etc.
What is episodic declarative memory?
all contextual details associated with it
What is the non-declarative memory?
Procedural memory: how we do things (biking, driving, etc)
What are the 2 types of amnesia?
Anterograde amnesia- maintains past memores but can't store anything new (patient HM)
Retrograde: can't remember anything from the past
What is spreading activation in long-term memory?
the neurons that are the most related have the strongest and faster connection within neurons.
What are the schemas of long-term memory?
Factoring in expectations doesn't waste time encoding; facilitates understanding but isn't always accurate.
What are flashbulb memories?
Remembering intense emotional experiences where we're highly confident in the details; the problem is that we aren't 100% sure that its a depiction of what actually happened; elicit good feelings (like the telephone game)
What does false/repressed memories include?
DRM paradigm- a word that isn't in the list but is highly associated with the words on the list
"Repressed Memories"- Lost in the mall technique; Elizabeth Loft asked families what happened to their children at 5 then solicits the stories to the participants. Negative experiences that the patient has forgotten.
Misinformation Effects: source errors, leading questions, eyewitnesses?
source errors: eyewitness testimony- not highly accurate; word choice- smash vs hit
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
psy 101 chapter 13
Chapter 17 - Social Cognition
Chapter 7: Memory
PSY Exam 3 (CH 9)
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