51 terms

Chapter 4 - Friedland and Relyea

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climate
the average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period of time
weather
the short term conditions of the atmosphere in a local area, which include temperature, humidity, clouds, precipitation, and wind speed
troposphere
the layer of the atmosphere closest to Earth's surface, extending approximately 16 km (10 mi)
stratosphere
layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere, extending roughly 16 to 50 km (10-30 miles) above the surface of the Earth
albedo
the percentage of incoming sunlight that is reflected from a surface
saturation point
the maximum amount of water vapor that can be in the air at a given temperature
adiabatic cooling
the process in which the decrease of atmospheric pressure allows rising air to expand in volume and lower it's temperature
adiabatic heating
the process in which the increase of atmospheric pressure allows sinking air to decrease in volume and raise it's temperature
latent heat release
the release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water
atmospheric convection current
global patterns of air movement that are initiated by the unequal heating of the Earth
Hadley Cell
the convection currents that cycle between the equator and 30 degrees N and S
intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
the latitude that receives the most intense sunlight, which causes the ascending branches of the two Hadley cells to converge
polar cells
a convection current in the atmosphere, formed by air that rises at 60 degrees N and S and sinks at the poles, 90 N and S
ferrell cell
convection current in the atmosphere that lies between Hadley cells and polar cells
Coriolis Effect
the deflection of an objects path due to Earth's rotation
rain shadow
a region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side
gyres
large-scale patterns of water circulation that moves clockwise in the N Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the S Hemisphere
upwelling
upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as a result of diverging currents
thermohaline circulation
An oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water
el Nino; ENSO
a reversal of wind and water currents in the South Pacific
terrestrial biomes
geographic regions that have a particular combination of average annual temperature and annual precipitation and contain distinctive plant growth forms that are adapted to that climate
aquatic biome
an aquatic region characterized by a particular combination of salinity, depth, an water flow
tundra
a biome that is cold and treeless, with low-growing vegetation
permafrost
an impermeable, permanently frozen layer that prevents water from draining and roots from penetrating
boreal forest
a biome; are forests made up primarily of coniferous (cone-bearing) evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons
temperate rainforest
a biome; moderate temperatures and high precipitation typify this biome
temperate seasonal forest
a biome; warm summers and cold winters with over 1 m (39 inches) of precipitation annually
shrubland/Chaparral
a biome; is characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters
Temperate Grassland/cold desert
a biome; cold, harsh winters and hot, dry summers characterize this biome
Tropical Rainforest
a biome; are warm and wet, with little seasonal temperature variation
Tropical Seasonal Forests; Savannahs
a biome; are marked by warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons
Subtropical Desets
a biome; also known as hot deserts; hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, and sparse vegetation prevail
Littoral Zone
is the shallow area of soil and water near the shore where algae and emergent plants such as cattails grow
Limnetic Zone
a zone of open water in lakes in ponds
Phytoplankton
floating algae
Profundal Zone
region of water where sunlight does not reach, below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes
Benthic Zone
the muddy bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean
oligotrophic
describes a lake with a low level of productivity
mesotrophic
describes a lake with a moderate level of productivity
eutrophic
describes a lake with a high level of productivity
Freshwater Wetland
a biome; aquatic biomes that are submerged or saturated by water for at least part of each year, but shallow enough to support emergent vegetation
Salt Marsh
a biome; a marsh containing nonwoody emergent vegetation, found along the coast in temperate climates
Mangrove Swamps
a biome; occur along tropical and subtropical coasts and contains salt-tolerant trees with roots submerged in water
Intertidal Zone
the narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide
Coral Reefs
a biome; are found in warm, shallow waters beyond the shoreline, represent Earth's most diverse marine biome
Coral Bleaching
a phenomenon in which the algae inside the corals die which soon causes the corals to turn white
open ocean
deep ocean water, located away from the shoreline where sunlight can no longer reach the ocean bottom
Photic Zone
the upper layer of water that receives enough sunlight to allow photosynthesis
Aphotic Zone
the deeper layer of water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis
Chemosynthesis
process in which bacteria deep in the ocean use the bonds of methane and hydrogen sulfide to generate energy
ecotone
an area where two or more habitat types come together; transitional plants & organisms are found here--fragile, with high diversity, alterations to these habitats can cause significant destruction of edge species

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