38 terms

Chapter 5 - Friedland and Relyea

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species richness
the number of species in a given area
species eveness
tells us whether a particular ecosystem is numerically dominated by one species or whether all of its species have similar abundances
phylogenies
the branching patterns of evolutionary relationships
evolution
a change in the genetic composition of a population over time
microevolution
the evolution below the species level, such as the evolution of different varieties of apples or potatoes
macroevolution
the process in which genetic changes give rise to a new species, genera, family, class, or phyla
genes
are physical locations on chromosomes within each cell of an organism; determines the range of possible traits that it can pass down to its offspring
genotype
the complete set of genes in an individual
phenotype
the actual set of traits expressed in that individual
mutation
an occasional mistake in the copying process of DNA produces a random change in the genetic code
recombination
occurs as chromosomes are duplicated during reproductive cell division and a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome
artificial selection
when humans determine which individuals breed, typically with a preconceived set of traits in mind
natural selection
the environment determines which individuals survive and reproduce
fitness
an individual's ability to survive and reproduce
adaptations
traits that improve an individual's fitness
gene flow
the process of allelles (genes) moving from one population to another
genetic drift
a change in the genetic composition of a population over time as a result of random mating
bottleneck effect
a reduction in the genetic diversity of a population caused by a reduction in its size
extinction
the death of every member of a species
founder effect
a change in a population descended from a small number of colonizing individuals
geographic isolation
when a subset of individuals from a larger population may colonize a new area of habitat that is physically separated from that of the rest of the population
allopatric speciation
a process of speciation that requires geographic isolation
reproductive isolation
when the geographically separated population becomes so different that even if the physical barrier were removed, they could no longer interbreed and produce viable offspring
sympatric speciation
the evolution of one species into two species in the absence of geographic isolation
genetically modified organisms
organisms that have had their genetic makeup modified by genetic engineering
genetic engineering
techniques in which scientists can now copy genes form a species with some desirable trait and insert these genes into other species
range of tolerance
limits to the abiotic conditions they can tolerate
fundamental niche
the suite of ideal conditions
realized niche
the range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a species actually lives
species distribution
the areas of the world in which the species lives
niche generalists
organisms that can live in a variety of habitats or feed on a variety of species
niche specialists
organisms that are specialized to lie in a specific habitat of feed on a small group of species
mass extinction
events in which large number of species when extinct over relatively short periods of time
fossils
the remains of organisms that have been preserved in rock
sixth mass extinction
scientists have predicted/identified a new mass extinction is underway and an estimated 2-25 percent of species will go extinct; it is caused by humans
ecosystem diversity
the measure of the variety of ecosystems within a region
species diversity
the measure of the variety of species within an ecosystem
genetic diversity
the measure of the variety of genes within a species
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