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System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

the overall process for developing information systems, from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance.

Planning Phase

establishes a high-level plan for the intended project and determines project goals.

Analysis Phase

the firm analyzes its end-user business requirements and refines project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system.

Business requirements

the specific business requests the system must meet to be successful.

Design Phase

establishes descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code and other documentation.

Development Phase

takes all the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforms them into the actual system.

Testing Phase

brings all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and bugs, an verify that the system meets all the business requirements defined in the analysis phase.

Implementation Phase

when the organization places the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with it.

Maintenance Phase

the organization performs changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet its business goals.


a set of policies, procedures, standards, processes, practices, tools, techniques and tasks that people apply to technical and management challenges.

Waterfall Methodology

a sequence of phases in which the output of each phase is the input for the next phase.
-Oldest and best known.

Iterative Development

consists of a series of tiny projects.

Agile Methodology

aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process using the bare minimum requirements.

primary forms of Agile Methodology

Rapid Application Development Methodology -A.K.A. Rapid Prototyping, Extreme Programming Methodology, Rational Unified Process(RUP) Methodology, Scrum Methodology

Rapid Application Development(RAD) Methodology

rapid prototyping, emphasizes extensive used involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system, to accelerate the system development process.


is a smaller-scale representation or working model of the users' requirements or the proposed design for an information system.

Extreme Programming(XP) Methodology

breaks projects into four phases and the developers cannot continue into the next phase until the previous phase is complete.

Rational Unified Process (RUP) Methodology

provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four gates each gate consisting of executable iterations of the software in development
-owned by IBM

Gate one: Inception

This phase ensures all stakeholders have a shared understanding of the proposed system and what it will do.

Gate two: Elaboration

This phase expands on the agreed-upon details of the system, including the ability to provide an architecture to support and build it.

Gate three: Construction

This phase includes building and developing the product.

Gate four: Transition

Primary questions answered in this phase address ownership of the system and training of key personnel.

Scrum Methodology

uses small teams to produce small pieces of software using a series of "sprints," or 30 day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal.

Project Management Institute (PMI)

develops procedures and concepts necessary to support the profession of project management.


a temporary activity a company undertakes to create a unique product, service or result.

Project Management

the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.

Project Manager

an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan and tracks the plan to make sure it is finished on time and on budget.

Project Deliverables

any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result or item that is produced to complete a project or a part of a project.
EX. design doccuments, testing scripts.

Project Milestone

represent key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed.
EX. Completion of the planning phase is a milestone.

Project Management Office

an internal department that overseas all organizational projects.must formalize and professionalize project management expertise and leadership. primary initiative is to educate the organization on techniques and procedures necessary to run successful projects.

Describe the Triple Constraint.

It involves time, scope and cost. Basically these three variables are all directly linked to each other. When one of the variables changes, atleast one other is also affected.
EX. If you move up a projects finish date, it will cost more money and it will also cause you to decrease the scope(eliminate details, features and functions) due to lack of time.

time, cost, scope

project management interdependent variables

Project Stakeholders

individuals and organizations actively involved in the project or whose interests might be affected as a result of project execution or project completion.

Executive Sponsor

the person or group who provides the financial resources for the project.

Project management activities

choosing strategic projects, understanding project planning, managing projects, outsourcing projects

Choosing Strategic Projects

Focus on organizational goals, Categorize business priorities, Perform financial analysis

Project management roles

time, scope, resources, industry changes, communication, expectations, quality, costs, methodologies and tools, organizational changes, SDLC, technological changes

Project Charter

a document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the start of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply some organizational resources to project activities.

Project Scope Statement

links the project to the organizations overall business goals.

Project Objectives

quantifiable criteria that must be met for the project to be considered a success.

Project Constraints

specific factors that can limit options.

Project Assumptions

are factors considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration. EX. hours in a work week or time of year the work will be completed.

Project Plan

a formal, apporoved document that manages and controls project execution.

SMART criteria

it gives useful reminders about how to ensure that the project has created understandable and measurable objectives.

specific, Measurable, Agreed Upon, Realistic, Time Frame

What are the parts to the SMART criteria?

Kill Switch

a trigger that enables a project manager to close the project before completion.

PERT(Program Evaluation and Review Technique) Chart

a graphical network model that depicts a projects tasks and the relationships between them.


a logical relationship that exists between the project tasks, or between a project task and a milestone.

Critical Path

estimates the shortest path through the project ensuring all critical tasks are completes from start to finish.

Gantt Chart

a simple bar chart that lists project tasks vertically against the projects time frame, listed horizontally.

Communication, People, Change

Managers focus on managing these areas for success

Change Management

offers procedures and policies managers can use to help manage change during system development.

Change Management System

includes a collection of procedures to document a change request and identifies the expected impact associated with the change

Change Control Board (CCB)

is responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests.

In-sourcing (in-house Development)

uses the professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain its information technology systems.


is an arrangement by which one organization provides a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house.

Onshore Outsourcing

Engaging another company within the same country for services.

Nearshore Outsourcing

contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country. Often this country will share a border with the native country.

Offshore Outsourcing

using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems. in offshore outsourcing the country is geographically far away.

The business problem

Any flaws in accurately defining and articulating the business problem in terms of what the business users actually require flow onward to the next phase.

The plan disadvantage

Managing costs, resources, and time constraints is difficult in the waterfall sequence.

The solution disadvantage

The waterfall methodology is problematic in that it assumes users can specify all business requirements in advance.

Fundamentals of RAD

Focus initially on creating a prototype that looks and acts like the desire system, Actively involve system users in the analysis, design, and development phases, Accelerate collecting the business requirements through an interactive and iterative construction approach

Onshore outsourcing model

direct customer control and close location

Nearshore outsourcing model

mid customer control and location

Offshore outsourcing model

Indirect customer control and remote location

why develop software

drive business operations and ensure work flows throughout a company

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