Allow the patient and family to verbalize feelings and concerns, including those related to the hereditary nature of the disease. Provide clear explanations, answer any questions, encourage the use of positive coping strategies, and offer support and guidance as necessary.
Institute bleeding and safety precautions, including using an electric razor, keeping rooms free from clutter, and providing cushioned sitting and sleeping surfaces, such as a convoluted foam mattress.
During a bleeding episode, elevate the area if possible and apply cold compresses and gentle pressure to the bleeding site. (Pressure is commonly the only treatment necessary.)
Maintain bed rest during an acute episode of bleeding. Encourage frequent rest periods and cluster care activities to promote rest. Encourage activity as tolerated once the bleeding episode has ceased.
Give prescribed drugs or transfusions. Administer desmopressin I.V., subcutaneously, or intranasally, as ordered.
Initiate I.V. access if appropriate and not already present, maintain I.V. patency, and provide I.V. site care.
Obtain specimens for laboratory testing, such as factor VIII levels for patients receiving factor replacements to prevent excess levels, which can increase the risk of thromboembolism.
disorder, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis, including the fact that most patients with this disease have a normal life expectancy
prescribed drug therapy, including drug names; dosages; routes of administration, such as desmopressin intranasally; and frequency and duration of therapy
possible adverse effects associated with drug therapy, such as flushing, tachycardia, and water retention with desmopressin
importance of notifying a doctor after even minor trauma and before any surgical procedure, including dental procedures, to determine whether replacement of blood components is necessary
warnings against using aspirin and other drugs that impair platelet function (and how to recognize over-the-counter medications that contain aspirin)
special precautions to prevent bleeding episodes
importance of wearing or carrying medical identification
measures to control bleeding and how to prevent bleeding, unnecessary trauma, and complications
importance of adhering to follow-up care, including periodic laboratory testing for factor levels if receiving factor replacement therapy.