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BIOL1309 Exam 4
Terms in this set (80)
What is the oldest fossil that is more like humans than other apes?
How were these first hominins different from modern day humans?
the first hominids had tiny brains and bodies were the size of chimpanzees
Why did Darwin decide that humans were closely related to apes?
some babies were born with a stump of a tail emerging. Details of skeletons and facial expressions are similar
Describe the characteristics of hominins that show the transition to bipedalism, as seen in the early fossil forms (Sahelanthropus, Orrorin, Ardipithecus, and Australopithecus)
they have many adaptations for walking. Curved spines, knees located close to midline of body, feet have stout heel and arch
How do these characteristics differ from chimps and the other apes?
chimps and apes' hips extend forward and lack all other adaptations for walking on 2 feet
What did fossil footprints reveal about the lifestyle of Australopithecus afarensis?
they were shifting to a new environment living in open woodlands. Here they had to travel farther to find food. Bipedal walking saved energy on long walks.
Which is the first hominin that used tools?
What is the first hominin that made sophisticated stone flake tools?
homo neanderthalensis and homo heidelbergensis
What is the first hominin that had the capacity for art, symbolic thought, and full- blown language?
When did the common ancestor of all living primates live?
When did the ancestors of New World monkeys diverge from Old World monkeys and the apes?
When did the apes and Old World monkeys diverge?
When did the hominins branch from the chimpanzee lineage?
What are the earliest primate fossils?
tiny, long-tailed creatures that lived in the trees
Describe the earliest fossil apes that appear in the fossil record about 20 MYA.
medium-large bodied creatures that lost their tails, have flexible strong hands and feet used to gri[ tree branches
Hominins are more closely related to which group of living apes? (Choose among Asian apes or African apes)
How did climate change affect the environment around the time that hominins emerged?
Average temperature of the planet dropped. Africa got less rainfalll. Drier woodlands and grasslands, rain and drought made food supplies less predictable
How did climate change affect the early ape lineages?
it was likely responsible for the extinction of most early ape lineages
How did climate change affect the early hominin lineages?
they adapted to the new ecosystems
What two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of bipedalism in hominins?
Kevin Hunt: it allowed hominins to do a better job at getting food
Peter Wheeler: it helped them stay cool
Look at Figure 14.5 on page 368 in the textbook and compare the skeletons of Australopithecus afarensis and Homo erectus.
a. Which of these two species was taller and had longer legs?
Which of these two species was better adapted for walking and running?
What is thought to be the oldest evidence of tool making by hominins?
making sticks to dig out termites or using rocks to crush nuts
Describe the earliest stone tools that are generally accepted by most scientists.
Hominins picked out certain rocks from riverbeds, chopped them to make them good for cutting, then carried them for miles before stopping to manufacture them into tools
This style of tools (early stone tool accepted by scientists) is known as the _____________________ tools.
What was the advantage of tool making for hominins?
they used them to carve off meat and hammer open bones. They used them to carve sticks and bones to dig up tubers and break open hard termite nests
Why is the discovery of Australopithecus sediba important to understanding human
It shows that even before Homo had evolved, some of the hallmarks of Homo already existed
Based on the fossils found by Dr. Berger and his colleagues, what characteristics did Australopithecus sediba share with other species of Australopithecus? (Look at Figure 14.8 on page 371 in the textbook.)
small brain size, long/high cheekbones, primitive molar cusps, small body size, long upper limbs, primitive heel bone
What characteristics did Australopithecus sediba share with Homo?
front of brain reorganized, projecting nose, smaller teeth and chewing muscles, hips less flared, similar to humans, longer legs, hand with precision grip
What anatomical changes are seen in Homo erectus and other early Homo species?
their hands no longer had special muscles for tree branch hanging, long legs and straight feet allowed them to walk efficiently
Describe the stone tools that were used by Homo erectus and other early Homo species.
they created hand axes by chipping away rock to make teardrop shape
This style of tools (used by homo erectus and other homo species) is known as the _____________________ tools.
What does this new style of tool making suggest about the brains of Homo erectus
and other early Homo species?
meant that homo had much more delicate control of its hands and was able to make more detailed plans for fashioning an ordinary rock into elaborate creations
How long did early Homo species use this type of tool technology?
1/2 a million years ago
How do changes in the digestive system and diet possibly relate to the evolution of the hominin brain?
as the guts of the hominids shrank, they were able to direct energy away from maintaining their intestinal tissues and towards expanding their brain
Which hominins first left Africa and moved into Eurasia?
Based on the fossil record, briefly describe the migration pathway. (See Figure 14.10 on page 373.)
left africa and went to indonesia, republic of georgia, and island of flores
Based on the fossils found in Flores, describe the anatomical features of Homo floresiensis. (Also look at Figure 14.11 on page 374 in the textbook.)
small brain, short stature
Homo floresiensis as an example of scientific process:
a. Based on the textbook, describe the three hypotheses that were proposed about
the origin of Homo floresiensis.
-it is just a population of homo sapiens
-its a branch of homo erectus
-australopiths left africa first
Based on this article, which of the three hypotheses has been rejected for now?
that the hobbit lived between 60,000 and 100,000 years ago
What is the basis for this decision?
the date range makes it impossible to argue that it is a pathologically dwarfed modern human
Discuss the anatomical and cultural changes that make Homo heidelbergensis different from other hominins.
had brains measuring 1200 cubic cm, left behind evidence that homonins could hunt
Describe the anatomical changes that occurred in the descendants of Homo heidelbergensis in Europe. What environmental changes drove these evolutionary changes?
climate; stubby legs, wider chest, more muscled bodies
a. How did their brains compare to modern humans?
they were as big as ours
What does isotope analysis show us about their diet? (neanderthals)
diet rich in meat
What do the fractured bones tell us about their hunting? (neanderthals)
they had to withstand a lot of abuse to hunt their food
What evidences of sophisticated behavior are associated with Neanderthal?
tools were advanced, colored shells with pigment and drilled holes in them (for necklaces)
What is considered today to be the ancestral species of Neanderthals?
What is considered today to be the ancestral species of Homo sapiens?
Based on the fossil evidence, where did Homo sapiens evolve and when?
africa; an accelerating pace
What do tools and other artifacts indicate about sophisticated behaviors of early Homo sapiens?
showed signs of self expression
Migration of Homo sapiens out of Africa
a. The oldest fossils of Homo sapiens were found in Africa and are dated as
________________ years old. The oldest fossils of modern humans found outside of Africa were discovered in ________________ and are dated to ________________ years old.
200,000; Israel; 100,000
Based on the fossil evidence for Homo sapiens, briefly describe the hypothesis proposed by Chris Stringer.
argued that the fossils were evidence that humans arose in africa then spread out to other continents
Which group of modern humans has the greatest genetic diversity, based on Sarah Tishkoff's studies of mitochondrial DNA?
Did her findings support Stringer's hypothesis or not?
Based on her findings, how are the different groups of modern humans related to each other?
our species first evolved in africa
Based on her work, where in Africa did modern humans come from?
This is the _____________ migration of hominins out of Africa. (Number?)
Briefly describe the studies of Svante Pääbo and his colleagues.
they are salvaging and growing a supply of DNA from extinct hominins
Based on his research, did Pääbo conclude that Neanderthals and modern humans are the same lineage or two separate lineages?
two separate lineages
What did his studies about the complete Neanderthal genome indicate about potential interbreeding between modern humans and Neanderthals?
they interbred and made hybrid kids
See Figure 14.4 on page 366 in Zimmer. What 3 groups descended from
Homo heidelbergensis? Which 2 groups are more closely related to each other?
homosapiens, denisovans, homo neanderthalensis;
denisovans and homo neanderthalsensis
Describe the evidence that supports the existence of the Denisovans.
they sequenced a genome in bone cells and found that it belonged to an entirely new lineage
Based on these findings, when was the last time that Denisovans, Neanderthals and modern humans shared a common ancestor?
800,000 years ago
When did Neanderthals and Denivosans last share a common ancestor?
400,000 years ago
Which group of modern humans today carry Denisovan genes?
populations in Australia, New Ginea, and Philippines
What does this reveal about the history of modern humans as they migrated out of Africa?
they may have encountered Denisovans in southeast asia 50,000 years ago
Using Figure 14.18 on page 381 in the textbook, describe the migratory pattern of modern humans.
africa - south asia - australia - pacific
What do we call a duplicated gene that has been disabled by mutations?
olfactory receptor genes
Compare the proportion of olfactory genes and pseudogenes in humans and mice
in mice 36% are pseudogenes.
In humans over 50% are pseudogenes.
Discuss the relationship between changes in diet and changes in vision in Old World monkeys and apes.
they have better sight than other primates. This helps them find good fruit. Fruit became scarce and they had to rely more on vision than smell
As vision became more important in primates, how did their social lives change?
They rely on facial expressions to communicate
As social life of primates changed, how did this affect the primate face and brain?
They evolved a wider range of facial expressions. New regions of the brain specialized i recognizing the facial expressions
Look at Figure 14.20 on page 383 in the textbook. This shows the brain size of hominins throughout our evolutionary history.
a. What does the graph show about the evolution of brain size in hominins?
it has increased over time
If Dunbar's hypothesis is correct, what does this graph indicate about social group size?
it has grown over time
Briefly describe the ultra-social hypothesis
the fundamental difference between humans and other apes is that we became "ultra social"
How does full-blown language set humans apart from other animals?
no other species can communicate with it. It lets us make complex plans together and gain a deeper understanding of the inner lives of other humans
What is the effect of the FOXP2 gene on the activity of Broca's area, an area of the brain involved in processing language?
people with the defective version of FOXP2 had less activity in Broca's area
How does the FOXP2 gene in modern humans compare to the same gene in Neanderthals and Denisovans?
they are identical
is the FOXP2 gene the only thing involved in language?
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