1. Vinuya 2. 2011 3. self-expression 4. form of catharsis 5. feelings of friendship
According to 1. ______ (2. _______), literature is man's vehicle for 3. ________: a 4. __________ (relief) and 5. ___________. It is the preserver of the culture of a nation that preserves it; the showcase of people's national upheavals (struggles); and, more importantly, it is a means or a tool for cultural transmission. It is through literature (along with other arts) that the cultural heritage of the people is passed on from one generation to the next. Of course, the primordial aim of literature is to entertain.
1. Literary Forms 2. Literary Genres
Forms and Genres
pertain to the structure or the way a piece was published. (short story, novel, poem, drama, or play)
pertain to the category determined by the technique of the author in delivering his content (Comedy, Tragedy, Horror, Fiction, Fantasy, Mystery, Mythology, Historical, Musical)
This is a very common figure of speech that involves using words that begin with the same sound.
This figure of speech uses a specific clause at the beginning of each sentence or point to make a statement.
This is a figure of speech that focuses on the vowel sounds in a phrase, repeating them over and over to create a great effect.
This figure of speech makes things seem much bigger than they really are by using grandiose depictions of everyday things. ______ is often seen as an exaggeration that adds a bit of humor to a story.
This figure of speech tries to use a word in a literal sense that debunks what has just been said. It is often used to poke fun at a situation that everyone else sees as a very serious matter.
The use of ________ compares two (2) things that are not alike and finds something about them to make them alike.
In this figure of speech, two (2) things are compared that are not really the same but are used to make a point about each other.
In this figure of speech, a word that has a very similar meaning can be used for another.
This is the use of a word that actually sounds like what it means.
This figure of speech completely contradicts itself in the same sentence.
This is a way of giving an inanimate object the qualities of a living thing.
This play on words uses different senses of the word or different sounds that make up the word, to create something fun and interesting.
This is a figure of speech in which one thing is meant to represent the whole.
This is a situation in which the thing discussed is made to seem much less important than it really is.
This is a contradiction that pits two (2) ideas against each other in a balanced way.
Words that are used to soften the message are often considered ________.
This puts two (2) words together that seem to contradict each other.
is distinct from fact. Presumably, it is a product of imagination - invention - and it claims the freedom to dispense with 'what really happened' or where it really happened, or when it really happened, and nothing in it needs to be publicly verifiable although much of it can be verified."
It is a writing based on facts, real events, and real people, such as biography or history
is a person who changes over time, usually as a result of resolving a central conflict or facing a major crisis. Most _______ characters tend to be central rather than peripheral characters because resolving the conflict is the major role of central characters.
is someone who does not change over time; his or her personality does not transform or evolve.
is anyone who has a complex personality; he or she is often portrayed as a conflicted and contradictory person.
is the opposite of a round character. This literary personality is notable for one kind of personality trait or characteristic.
are those types of characters who have become conventional or stereotypical through repeated use in particular types of stories. _______ characters are instantly recognizable to readers or audience members (e.g. the femme fatale, the cynical but moral private eye, the mad scientist, the geeky boy with glasses, and the faithful sidekick). _______ characters are normally one-dimensional flat characters, but sometimes stock personalities are deeply conflicted, rounded characters (e.g. the "Hamlet" type).
is the central person in a story, and is often referred as the story's main character. He or she (or they) is faced with a conflict that must be resolved. The _______ may not always be admirable (e.g. an anti-hero); nevertheless s/he must command involvement on the part of the reader, or better yet, empathy.
is the character(s) (or situation) that represents the opposition against which the protagonist must contend. In other words, the ________ is an obstacle that the protagonist must overcome.
It is the part of a story that talks about an important background to the readers or audience like for instance, the setting of the story, about the characters, happenings, or events that occur before the main plot.
it is a related series of incidents in a literary plot that builds toward the point of greatest interest. This where the conflict or problem in the story arises in dramatic intensity.
It is the most intense, exciting, or important event in the story.
It is the part of a literary plot that occurs after the climax has been reached and the conflict has been resolved.
the final part of the plot that explains the outcome of the complex events in the story.
It refers to the central topic a text treats; it is the general idea or general observation about life and people. The _______ will lead the readers to the meaning of the story. Examples of ______ are love, friendship, war, crime and mystery, revenge, etc.
It is the voice that narrates the story. If the writer or author is the one who writes a story, the _______ tells it (figurative). The _______ is the technique that writer's use to create a particular point of view from which they will tell the story, present the actions, and shape the readers' responses.
1. Omniscient 2. First Person 3. Unreliable
Three (3) kinds of Narrator
it is presumed to be reliable or all knowing. This narrator exposes the internal thoughts of the characters, emotionally detached from the actions and uses third person pronoun - he, she, it, and they in point of view.
the narrators report the event in the point of view of the "I" or he himself involved in the story. It differs from the omniscient point of view for it creates greater degree of intimacy with the readers
these narrators do not possess the full understanding of the events they narrate, and the reader can see more than they do. The narrator's lack of awareness is evident.
refers to the way the writers express themselves. It depends on diction (choice of words), syntax (grammar and sentence structure), as well as voice and rhythm.
is the manner, mood, or pervading attitude that writers establish for characters, situations, and readers such as intimate or distant, ironic or direct, hostile or sympathetic, formal or casual, humorous or serious, and emotional or objective.
is a collection of movements and ideologies that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve equal political, economic, cultural, personal, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment.
examines how sexual identity influences the creation and reception of literary works.
believe that culture has been so completely dominated by men that literature is full of unexamined "male-produced" assumptions. They see their criticism correcting this imbalance by analyzing and combating patriarchal attitudes.
refers to critical approaches that analyze, interpret, or evaluate the inherent features of a text.
assume that the keys to understanding a text exist within "the text itself," and thus focus a great deal on form.
examines the form of the work as a whole, the form of each individual part of the text (the individual scenes and chapters), the characters, the settings, the tone, the point of view, the diction, and all other elements of the text which join to make it a single text. After analyzing each part, the critic then describes how they work together to make give meaning (theme) to the text.
is an indirect presentation of an object, by stating characteristics features or peculiarities, enough to call it to mind without naming it.
central part of the Filipino tradition since well before the country became a colony of Spain, and the tradition persisted throughout the colonial period and into modern times.
are pithy sayings that contain advice or state a basic truth. They reflect folk wisdom as to how to act and live, hence, they show the cultural values and the physical environment of the region where they originated.
Filipinos are music lovers. Music is a way for Filipinos to express their feelings and aspirations in life. Even the most common people have their own music. Filipino folks clearly and lucidly express their experiences and dreams through folk songs. Among the most popular traditional folk songs include "Bahay Kubo", "Paroparong Bukid", "Magtanim ay 'Di Biro", and many others.
Undoubtedly, the most popular traditional Filipino folk song
The song tells of a small hut surrounded by a variety of vegetables. It was composed by Felipe de Leon.
is a street spectacle/street play where penitents re-enact the carrying of the Cross and crucifixion of Christ.
is traditionally performed on a proscenium-type stage with painted cloth or paper backdrops that are called telon.
It takes at least eight (8) nights - from Palm Sunday to Easter Sunday - to present the play. Christ is presented traditionally as meek and masochistic, submitting lamblike to his fate in obedience to authority.
Painted cloth or paper backdrops
is another form of penance where the people are walking with the procession. People near the church wait eagerly to witness the reenactment. Locals act as Roman soldiers with their menacingly painted masks and armors, pounding on doors to search for Jesus. Most anticipated among the episodes are the judgment of Jesus, the Crucifixion, and His Seven Last Words. Spectators may range from devotees to the merely curious. For some, it is the time to reflect on the life of Jesus, while others take it as a chance to spend time with family and friends. The routine of the reenactment has not changed, but its presentation is infused with a fresh flavor to reach the modern world absorbed consciousness of the new generation.
is a traditional Filipino ritual involving an uninterrupted chanting of the "Pasyong Mahal," an epic poem that covers the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
s evolved into a community activity that allows Catholic devotees to express their faith while reflecting on their sins during Holy Week.