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genetic code

the ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells


(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms


Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity

multiple alleles

three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait

sex chromosomes

one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human, contains genes that will determine the sex of the individual

sex-linked traits

traits that are inherited with sex chromosomes


a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family


A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs

selective breeding

The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation

stem cells

unspecialized cells that retain the ability to become a wide variety of specialized cells


making a genetically identical copy of DNA or of an organism

genetic engineering

the transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism, in order to produce an organism with desired traits

human genome

map of the genes on the 46 human chromosomes


a person who has one recessive allele for a trait, but does not have the trait


continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics


breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms

gene therapy

The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder

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