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changes in physiology, anatomy, and physical functioning that develop a person into a mature adult biologically and prepare the body for sexual reproduction
period of the life span between the time puberty begins and the time adult status is approached, when young people are preparing to take on the roles and responsibilities of adulthood in their culture
sex hormones that have especially high levels in females from puberty onward and are mostly responsible for female primary and secondary sex characteristics
sex hormones that have especially high levels in males from puberty onward and are mostly responsible for male primary and secondary sex characteristics
primary sex characteristics
production of eggs (ova) and sperm and the development of the sex organs
change in the characteristics of a population over time
-downward pattern in the age of menarche that has occurred in every Western country which records exist
formal custom developed in many cultures to mark the departure from childhood and the entrance into adolescene
Piaget's theory, cognitive stage beginning at age 11 in which people learn to think systematically about possibilities and hypothesis
Piaget's term for process by which the formal operational thinker systematically tests possible solutions to a problem and arrives at an answer that can be defended and explained
type of egocentrism in which adolescents have difficulty distinguishing their thinking about their own thoughts from their thinking about the thoughts of others
belief that others are acutely aware of and attentive to one's appearance and behavior
belief in one's personal uniqueness, often including a sense of invulnerability to the consequences of taking risks
-"won't happen to me"
person's conceptions of the self as it potentially may be; may include both an ideal self and feared self
self a person may present to others while realizing that it does not represent what he or she is actually thinking and feeling
hypothesis that psychological and behavioral difference between males and females become more pronounced at adolescence because of intensified socialization pressures to conform to culturally prescribed gender roles
first level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development, in which moral reasoning is based on perceptions of the likelihood of external rewards and punishments
second level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development, in which moral reasoning is based on the expectations of others
third level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development, in which moral reasoning is based on the individual's own independent judgments rather than on what others view as wrong or right
set of cultural beliefs that explain what it means to be human, how human relations should be conducted, and how human problems should be addressed
small group of friends who know each other well, do things together, and form a regular social group
culture that encourages and expects sexual activity from their adolescents
-ex: Northern Europe
culture that has prohibitions on premarital adolescent sex, but the prohibitions are not strongly enforced and are easily evaded
-ex: United States, Canada, most of Europe
culture that places strong prohibitions on adolescent sexual activity before marriage
-ex: Asia and South America
for homosexuals, the process of acknowledging their homosexuality and then disclosing the truth to their friends, family, and others
school attended during adolescence, after primary school
-middle school and high school
an arrangement, common in Europe, in which an adolescent "novice" serves under contract to a "master" who has substantial experience in a profession, and through working under the master, learns the skills required to enter the profession
life-course-persistent delinquent (LCPD)
delinquent who shows a pattern of problems from birth onward and whose problems continue into adulthood
adolescent-limited delinquent (ALD)
delinquent who shows no evidence of problems prior to adolescence and whose delinquent behavior in adolescence is temporary
major depressive disorder
clinical diagnosis that includes a range of specific symptoms such as depressed mood, appetite disturbances, sleeping disturbances, and fatigue
overcoming adverse environmental circumstances and achieving healthy development despite those circumstances
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