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53 terms

Chapter 8: Adolescence

STUDY
PLAY
puberty
changes in physiology, anatomy, and physical functioning that develop a person into a mature adult biologically and prepare the body for sexual reproduction
adolescence
period of the life span between the time puberty begins and the time adult status is approached, when young people are preparing to take on the roles and responsibilities of adulthood in their culture
estrogens
sex hormones that have especially high levels in females from puberty onward and are mostly responsible for female primary and secondary sex characteristics
androgens
sex hormones that have especially high levels in males from puberty onward and are mostly responsible for male primary and secondary sex characteristics
estradiol
the estrogen most important in pubertal development among girls
testosterone
the androgen most important in pubertal development among boys
primary sex characteristics
production of eggs (ova) and sperm and the development of the sex organs
secondary sex characteristics
bodily changes of puberty not directly related to reproduction
menarche
first menstrual period
spermarche
beginning of development of sperm in boys' testicles at puberty
secular trend
change in the characteristics of a population over time
-downward pattern in the age of menarche that has occurred in every Western country which records exist
puberty ritual
formal custom developed in many cultures to mark the departure from childhood and the entrance into adolescene
anorexia nervosa
eating disorder characterized by intentional self-starvation
bulimia
eating disorder characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging
self-medication
use of substance to relieve unpleasant emotional states
formal operations
Piaget's theory, cognitive stage beginning at age 11 in which people learn to think systematically about possibilities and hypothesis
hypothetical-deductive reasoning
Piaget's term for process by which the formal operational thinker systematically tests possible solutions to a problem and arrives at an answer that can be defended and explained
divided attention
ability to focus on more than one task at a time
metacognition
capacity to think about thinking
adolescent egocentrism
type of egocentrism in which adolescents have difficulty distinguishing their thinking about their own thoughts from their thinking about the thoughts of others
imaginary audience
belief that others are acutely aware of and attentive to one's appearance and behavior
personal fable
belief in one's personal uniqueness, often including a sense of invulnerability to the consequences of taking risks
-"won't happen to me"
actual self
person's perception of the self as it is, contrasted with the possible self
possible self
person's conceptions of the self as it potentially may be; may include both an ideal self and feared self
ideal self
person one would like to be
feared self
person one imagines it is possible to become but dreads becoming
false self
self a person may present to others while realizing that it does not represent what he or she is actually thinking and feeling
gender-intensification hypothesis
hypothesis that psychological and behavioral difference between males and females become more pronounced at adolescence because of intensified socialization pressures to conform to culturally prescribed gender roles
preconventional reasoning
first level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development, in which moral reasoning is based on perceptions of the likelihood of external rewards and punishments
conventional reasoning
second level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development, in which moral reasoning is based on the expectations of others
postconventional reasoning
third level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development, in which moral reasoning is based on the individual's own independent judgments rather than on what others view as wrong or right
worldview
set of cultural beliefs that explain what it means to be human, how human relations should be conducted, and how human problems should be addressed
secular
based on nonreligious beliefs and values
autonomy
quality of being independent and self-sufficient, capable of thinking for one's self
intimacy
degree to which two people share personal knowledge, thoughts, and feelings
clique
small group of friends who know each other well, do things together, and form a regular social group
crowd
large, reputation-based group of adolescents
cyberbullying
bullying via electronic means, mainly through the Internet
permissive culture
culture that encourages and expects sexual activity from their adolescents
-ex: Northern Europe
semirestrictive culture
culture that has prohibitions on premarital adolescent sex, but the prohibitions are not strongly enforced and are easily evaded
-ex: United States, Canada, most of Europe
restrictive culture
culture that places strong prohibitions on adolescent sexual activity before marriage
-ex: Asia and South America
sexual orientation
a person's tendencies of sexual attraction
coming out
for homosexuals, the process of acknowledging their homosexuality and then disclosing the truth to their friends, family, and others
homophobia
fear and hatred of homosexuals
secondary school
school attended during adolescence, after primary school
-middle school and high school
rote learning
learning by memorization and repetition
apprenticeship
an arrangement, common in Europe, in which an adolescent "novice" serves under contract to a "master" who has substantial experience in a profession, and through working under the master, learns the skills required to enter the profession
life-course-persistent delinquent (LCPD)
delinquent who shows a pattern of problems from birth onward and whose problems continue into adulthood
adolescent-limited delinquent (ALD)
delinquent who shows no evidence of problems prior to adolescence and whose delinquent behavior in adolescence is temporary
depressed mood
enduring period of sadness, without any other related symptoms of depression
major depressive disorder
clinical diagnosis that includes a range of specific symptoms such as depressed mood, appetite disturbances, sleeping disturbances, and fatigue
resilience
overcoming adverse environmental circumstances and achieving healthy development despite those circumstances
protective factors
characteristics of young people that are related to lower likelihood of problems despite experiencing high-risk circumstances
-high intelligence, physical attractiveness, parenting with effective balance of warmth and control, mentor