economic development part one
Terms in this set (64)
following best describes the Kuznet's curve related to development and pollution.
As a country's economy industrializes, pollution will increase but as the population gets wealthier pollution will eventually decline
Based on impact studies by climatologists and geographers the following is a likely impact of global warming:
• Decreasing ice in the Arctic.
• Rising sea levels.
• Low elevation coastal areas will have increased likelihood of flooding and loss of land.
• Increasing intensity of tropical storms
Fair Trade movement.
To insure that a higher percentage of the profit in international trade goes to the producers in less developed countries describes the purpose of the
The Fair Trade movement attempts to
reduce the commodity chain which gives the producer a better price for their product.
The following factors help explain why steel manufacturing facilities in the United States have increasingly been located in a coastal city location
• The decreasing cost of transporting iron ore.
• Scrap metal is widely available in city locales.
• A large demand for steel exists in large coastal cities around the world.
• Cheap sources of iron ore from foreign countries.
A peasant in rural China is most likely employed in this sector of the economy
(% of workforce engaged in each sector) would be an example of a postindustrial country
Primary 10%, secondary 30%, tertiary 60%
On a global scale, most people work in this sector
The percent of people working in agriculture is ______ and the productivity of farming is ______ best describes the overall global trend in agriculture
decreasing ; increasing
Many United States high tech companies have been outsourcing many of their technical support and other tertiary jobs to which countries.
The following is typically a characteristic of Least Developed Countries (LDCs):
• Extreme disparities in income exist between rich and poor.
• An increasing percentage of the population living in cities.
• Large portions of the population engaged in agricultural activity.
• The standard of living has generally been rising.
This is an economic system with relatively simple technology on which people produce most or all of the goods to satisfy their family's needs.
This region gets the highest percentage of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from agriculture
This region has the highest concentration of a subsistent economic system.
This region accounted for nearly 80% of the industrial output of the early 1800s Industrial Revolution.
During the 1800s Industrial Revolution, this was the most important fuel source for manufacturing.
All of the following descriptions explain in part the diffusion of the Industrial Revolution
• Hierarchical diffusion - The British Empire spread industrial concepts throughout many world cities and regions.
• Contagious diffusion - manufacturing ideas and concepts spread from England to nearby European countries.
• Stimulus diffusion - Many American and European companies modified ideas and concepts from England and created new ways of manufacturing.
• Diffused to areas with common locational factors including the availability of coal, access to a water port, proximity to a labor supply and available capital.
The following countries are major producers of steel
japan, china , US, south korea
A large pool of skilled labor and quick delivery to large markets best explains why many companies continue to locate factories in traditional manufacturing regions like
northeast United States and Western Europe
A Textile plant is most likely to outsource jobs to another country because of slight increases
Relatively less expensive site costs and quick delivery to large markets best explains why automobile manufacturing and assembly plants continue to locate in the interior
These factors explain why automobile manufacturing and assembly plants continue to close or relocate facilities in the northern United States.
• Lower labor costs in other U.S. regions.
• Cars are increasingly made with plastic and aluminum materials, which changes the optimal location of assembly plants.
• The United States population center continues to migrate south and west thereby increasing the transportation costs of production in the north.
• Increasing competition from international companies locating plants in the United States.
industrialization of a country's economy often has the following large- scale effects on a country's demographic patterns
Mechanized farming replaces many labor-intensive jobs, inducing people to move to new industrial and urban areas. Over time, the country's birth rate decreases as the country industrializes.
Prior to the Industrial Revolution, Individual families produced goods by hand or on individual spinning wheels best describes
These descriptions provide an accurate image of Fordism
• Post-Fordist workers often work on equal terms and conditions with managers.
• Fordist production requires mainly low skill labor.
• Post-Fordist production plants often produce a greater variety of goods that meet the needs of niche markets.
• Fordist production workers often perform a specific specialized task over and over on the line.
the largest percent of the world's petroleum reserves.
Computer technical support jobs are increasingly being outsourced to India, because of improvements in
telecommunication technology. An example of Space-time compression
that has the highest percentage of women serving as elected officials is
According to Wallerstein's world-systems analysis, there will an evolution towards multiple cores that exchange
goods, services and resources
Modernization advocates that countries proceed through progressive stages of economic structural change. Less developed countries should follow the path the ________ and ________ took during the Industrial Revolution.
WESTERN EUROPE ; NORTH AMERICA
Dependency development schools of thought advocates that the dynamic between highly developed and developing countries, permanently keeps less developed countries at an
This development school of thought advocates the best strategies for development are the use of micro loans for women and the poor, small-scale community based projects, and resource conservation.
This development school of thought followed by the Chinese in the 1980's advocates that counties who wish to improve their economy should privatize industries, encourage foreign investment and move towards free trade
\This industry would most likely be market oriented.
This industry would most likely be resource oriented
Weber's least cost location theory uses these factors to determine optimum location of a manufacturing facility
relative location of resources and markets
Railroad would be most effective in delivering coal from a mine in Casper, Wyoming to a plant creating electricity in
The most important transportation improvement of the late 20th and early 21st century impacting international trade is
improvements in intermodal containerization
Copper mining is an example of a
bulk reducing industry
Automobile assembly is an example of a
bulk gaining industry.
Based on classical optimal location theory, the lowest cost location in the bulk gaining industry of soft-drink bottling is that water and glass are plentiful but heavy so production should be relatively close to the market in order to reduce
In the context of industrial location, the unique characteristics of a location including the factors of labor, capital and land, best describes the concept of
n the context of industrial location, this the location of an industry in relation to resources used in production and the distance from its market, best describes the concept of
Changes in transportation, manufacturing techniques and markets have changed situational considerations in the 21st century is most true today relating to the situational factors of
A clustering of rubber tire and windshield producers near automobile assembly plants is best explained by the benefits of
This development strategy would be consistent with Rostow's preconditions for take-off stage build hydroelectric
dams and roads
Self-Sufficiency encourages countries to spread its investments equally across all sectors of its economy and regions and encourages high tariffs and measures to protect new emerging industries
The main goal is to reduce poverty
The Human Development Index (HDI) was derived to create a method of measuring development that attempts to include
social and economic elements.
lowest overall Human Development Index (HDI) ranking.
has the highest overall Human Development Index (HDI) ranking than sub sahara and a lower ranking than Western Europe.
The following demographic characteristics of development would be typical of a less developed country in 2012
• Life expectancy of only 60 years.
• Natural increase of less than 2%.
• Twenty-five percent of the population below age 15.
• High infant mortality rate of 57 deaths per 1000 births
According to the Human Development Index (HDI) the following would be considered a social measurement of
development Literacy rate.
All of the following factors help explain why this global assembly line process occurs
• improvements in data communication.
• relatively low transportation costs due to containerization.
• relatively low labor costs in different regions of the world.
• the durability of the good being processed.
of development as shown by the Brandt line generally asserts that northern countries are wealthier than
the largest increases in GDP per capita in the late 20th and early 21st century.
became a center for capital, banking and international trade during the late 20th and early 21st century.
a term for places of economic activity deliberately organized around one or more high growth industries.
The Human Development Index (HDI) uses four statistical measurements. the following lists are statistics used to measure the HDI
Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), life expectancy, literacy rate, and average years of education.
The value of all goods and service produced within a country in a given year.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
The value of all goods and service that the citizens of a county produced in a given reguardless of where they live.
Gross National Product (GNP):
economic development within a country occurs not all regions of a country or region will benefit equally; in fact some regions may be negatively affected by another region's development
indicates that before high level economic development can occur, countries must pass through predictable and sequential stages.
Rostow's economic development model
last stage of development of Rostow's model
High Mass Consumption
The textile industry in the United States has been more susceptible to out-sourcing than has the automobile assembly industry for the following reasons
auto assembly is more of a market-oriented industry, textiles are cheaper to transport than cars, and low cost, low skill labor is often available overseas.