100 terms

Economic Geography: Agriculture

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Boserup's basic thesis with respect to population growth in cultures that practiced subsistence agriculture was that
population increase would be accompanied by an increase in how intensely land would be used
When comparing the Koppen Climate Regions Map with the Whittlessey Agricultural Regions Map one can connclude that
there is a direct relationship between the patterns on both maps
Plantation agriculture doesn't exist in
North America anymore
Why do market gardening farms grow highly perishable fruits and vegetables?
Farms are located close to urban centers
Market gardening takes place in
-New Jersey/Delaware
-parts of Florida
-west coast of Michigan
-Central Valley of California
The technical definition of horticulture includes
the cultivation of flowers fruits and vegetables
Important large-scale commercial wheat producing countries in the world include:
The US, Argentina, Australia, Ukraine
Suitcase farms are most associated most with
grain farming
British Columbia in Canada is most productive for
timber
Primogeniture is
the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings
Major wheat producing states
Montana, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, North Dakota
The modern definition of agriculture includes the deliberate domestication of
plant and animals
Agriculture is associated with what sector of the economy?
primary
The most practiced economic activity in the world is
intensive subsistence agriculture
Shifting cultivation is still practiced in many parts of
Central Asia
Societies practicing shifting cultivation only farm on the same plot of land for
one to two years
Pastoral nomadism is still a dominant way of life in many parts of
Central Asia
Pastoral nomads predominate in
semi-arid deserts and deserts
Characteristics of pastoral nomads is that
they only consume animal products and animal by-products
Herders who seasonally move there animals between mountain pastures and lowland valleys practice
transhumance
Nomadism is a threatened way of life because
-competition for resources
-nomads often cross international borders
-not an economically viable livelihood
-increased population pressures
Livestock ranching and pastoral nomadism both exist
in environments too harsh for crop production
The second agricultural revolution coincided with the
Industrial Revolution
Pastoral nomads potentially contribute to desertification by
overgrazing
Double cropping
Agricultural technique allows subsistence farmers in tropical and sub-tropical areas to support a large population with a small amount of arable land
Examples of extensive subsistence agriculture are
slash and burn agriculture and nomadic herding
Extensive subsistence agriculture predominates in
semi-arid deserts
The agricultural practice most commonly associated with intensive subsistence agriculture is
paddy rice farming
Technology essential for intensive subsistence agriculture is
irrigation
Strategies used to increase the supply of food for a country could include
-putting more land into production
-increasing the yield of land under cultivation
-identifying new food sources
-increasing food imports
Dairy operations locate on the suburban fringe of metropolitan areas because
access to market is greater
In subsistence agriculture there is
little relationship to other businesses
The primary purpose of commercial agriculture is
to make profit
The percentage of the labor force in the US that works directly in agriculture is
2-5%
The major difference between subsistence and commercial agriculture is
-where the product is consumed.
-that commercial agriculture is primarily focused on profit.
-that land ownership in subsistence agriculture communities is often communal.
-that in subsistence agriculture the motivation is to feed one's family.
Subsistence agriculture dominates in
less developed countries
Growing only enough food to feed your family is an example of
subsistence agriculture
Truck farming is a type of
commercial farming
Humans survived prior to the invention of agriculture by
engaging in hunting and gathering
Statements that are most accurate concerning the invention of agriculture is
the process was gradual and there were multiple hearths throughout the world
The first area of the world to incorporate domestication of both plants and animals
Southwest Asia
The advantage of domesticating animals
-animals provided meat
-animals provided milk
-animals provided furs and skins
-animals were beasts of burden
Carl Saur, a famous cultural geographer theorized that
the invention of agriculture took place in multiple hearths
Europe did not contain an
agricultural hearth
Agricultural first diffused to
Europe from Southwest Asia
The biotechnical agricultural revolution is best characterized by the
incorporation of genetically modified crops
The second agricultural revolution improve agricultural production
-The four-field system increased yields and soil fertility.
-New technologies such as the drill press increased production.
-The Enclosure Movement encouraged the use of machinery.
-Advances in breeding livestock increased production of meat and dairy.
Why is a piece of land used intensively or extensively for agriculture?
Distance to the market
Types of extensive commercial agriculture are
wheat and grain farming and livestock ranching
an example of intensive subsistence agriculture
paddy rice farming
Dairy farmers locate near urban areas because
it is expensive to transport product to market and milk has limited shelf life
Dairy farmers specialize in other products rather than fresh milk because
they are located outside the milkshed
The most widely produced grains in the world are
wheat, rice, and maize
Most cereal grains produced in the US are
fed to livestock
These accounts for dramatic increased yields of wheat
-Increased use of machinery
-Increased use of pesticides
-Increased used of fertilizers
-Development of improved seed varieties
Grain produced in the United States
is not used for being consumed predominately by local communities throughout the Midwest
The country that produces the most maize in the world is
the United States
The area in Canada most associated with grain farming is
the Prairie Provinces
Pastoral nomads and livestock ranchers both operate most efficiently in
similar climates
Many feedlots have located in the southeast and west of the United States because of
proximity to growing markets in the south and west less severe weather
Advantages that cattle feedlots have over traditional methods of livestock ranching
-Feedlots combine a number of steps in the meat packing industry in one location.
-Feedlots are more efficient at adding weight to cattle.
-Feedlots reduce transportation costs of cattle prior to being slaughtered.
-Feedlots reduce transportation costs of the finished product.
Mediterranean agricultural products are grown in
-Chile
-the Central Valley of California
-southern Spain
-North Africa
Mediterranean agriculture products include
grapes
olives
dates
lemons
The two most important crops grown in the Mediterranean region are
grapes and olives
In Mediterranean agriculture farmers derive most of their income from
fruits and vegetables
Even though climactic conditions are suitable for wine production in North Africa and Southwest Asia, there is not a cultural tradition of consuming wine in these regions because of
Islam
Market gardening farms are located close to large urban areas because
-Expensive land costs force farmers to grow crops with a higher profit margin.
-Of the highly perishable nature of their crops.
-Transport costs are high due to special handling requirements.
-Farmers need large amounts of capital for specialized machinery.
Due to increased interregional migration, an increaing percent of vegetables in China are being produced in
urban plots
Another name for truck farmings
-specialty farming
-market gardening
-commercial gardening and fruit farming
-intensive commercial agriculture
Commercial agriculture practices in the tropics and subtropics is called
plantation agriculture
These crops are often grown on plantations in the tropics and subtropics
-Sugarcane
-Palm oil
-Cocoa
-Tea
Most plantation operations are found in
-Latin America
-Sub-Saharan Africa
-Southeast Asia
-South Asia
In upland areas where plantation agriculture is present,
Tea and coffee are the most common crops grown
Legal crops such as coffee, tea, and tobacco grown on plantation in the tropics for export to MDCs are commonly referred to as
luxury crops
According to the Von Thunen model, a commercial farmer when deciding what crops to plant considers
transportation costs and cost of land
According to the Von Thunen model, grazing would be located in the _______________ ring
outermost concentric
Von Thunen includes a forestry ring in his model of agricultural land use because
wood was used for construction purposes and heating and wood is heavy and therefore expensive to transport
According to the Von Thunen model, the first ring is used for
dairy
Von Thunen's agricultural land use model assumes
-there is a flat isotopic plane
-there are uniform soils across the landscape
-there are no physical features present, such as rivers or mountains
-all goods use the same form of transportation
Today circular rural settlements are most commonly associated with
Sub-Saharan Africa
The region of the world that benefited the least from the Green Revolution was
Sub-Saharan Africa
The following are negative consequences of the Green Revolution in India
-It increased environmental damage due to the increased used of chemical pesticides and fertilizers
-It increased interregional migration
-It incresed the gap between wealthy and poor farmers
Even though post WWII population growth rates hit record numbers, the factor(s) prevented Malthus's predictions from becoming a reality in LDCs
-The Green Revolution doubled and triples crop yields in many developing countries
-Massive relief on the part of the United States prevented worldwide famine
-Technological advancements increased yields throughout the world
-High yield varieties (HYV's) increased yields in many parts of the world
This type of business practice significantly reduces the commodity chain for an agricultural product such as coffee or tea
Fair trade movement
Agribusiness
The trend whereby large corporations buy and control many different steps in a food-processin industry
The two most widely used and distributed Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's) crops are
soybeans and corn
Many countries in Europe and Africa are reluctant to import GMO's produced foods from the US becuase
-they could severely alter local agricultural economies
-they could possibly crossbreed with domestic varieties
-they would cause economic dependence on US corporations
-they are considered less nutritious
Monoculture
Growing or raising a single specialty crop on large tracts of lands
In recent years livestock ranching has been most responsible for
deforestation of the rain forest in parts of Central and South America
Intensive subsistence and organic truck farming could be deemed
sustainable
The goal(s) of sustainable agriculture is to
-reduce pesticide and fertilizer usage
-help perserve the social fabric of rural communities
-perserve the long-term productivity of the land
-return to a better system of integrating crops and livestock
The production and harvesting of fish and shell fish in sectioned off coves and land-based ponds is technically referred to as
acquaculture
On a global scale most organic products are sold in
North America and Europe
Forms of farm subsidies does not include
farmers growing specialty crops
Hog production is nearly nonexistent in Southwest Asia and North Africa because
cultural taboos exist on eating pork
In the last twenty years the region of the world that has experienced a decline in food production compared to population growth is
Sub-Saharan Africa
Prior to the industrialization of agriculture and the trend towards monocrops, most farms in the upper Midwest were
mixed crop and livestock
The European Union refuses to purchase corn and soybeans from the US because they are
opposed to GMO crops
All of the following are benefits of purchasing locally produced foods do not include that the
prices are lower
The major reason why intensive subsistence farmers do not grow rice is because of the
climate
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