History 2111 Midterm
Terms in this set (73)
Portuguese explorer who sailed the southernmost tip if Africa in 1488 in order to find a water route to Asia
Robert de la Salle
French expeditionist sent to the Mississippi River as the Spanish tried to uproot French settlements
Spanish Conquistador responsible for the fall of the Aztec Empire
The myth that all Spanish conquistadors did when they entered the New World was kill Indians, steal their gold, and give them diseases; all the Europeans were responsible for this
Indian and European descendents
Italian explorer commissioned by England to visit the northeastern coast of the new world
Indian chieftain that dominated the James River and the Indian people living in that area. He captured John Smith and subjected him to a mock execution. He was saved by Powhatan's daughter Pocahontas, which was an indication of peace between the Indians and colonists
Founded Maryland in 1634. It was the fourth colony founded and it was created as a refuge for Catholics from Protestant England
He was one of the founders and leaders of the Georgia colony who had much influence in the prison reform and repelled Spanish attack
Italian explorer who brought ideas from China
Europeans who came to the New World without money willing to work a number of years to pay for their passage
the existence of a single continent has been proven by:
the same/similar species of fish in multiple continents
short-term partnership between multiple investors to fund a commercial enterprise; such arrangements were used to fund England's early colonial ventures
Great Ice Age
Contributed to the history of humans. The glaciers packed onto each other forming bridges. The herds would cross these bridges and the nomadic hunters would follow
what the "elect" where referred to in the Puritan doctrine
As a result of the rapid population growth in colonial English America during the eighteenth century
a momentous shift occurred in the balance of power between the colonies and the mother country
Puritan doctrine included the acceptance of
the idea of a covenant with God
Bacon's Rebellion was supported by
young men's inability to acquire land; it was an uprising of Virginia backcountry farmers and indentured servants led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was initially a response to Govenor WIlliam Berkeley's refusal to protect backcountry settlers from Indian attacks but grew into a broad conflict between impoverished settlers and planter elite
The triangular trade
was the exchange of rum, slaves, and molasses between the North American Colonies, Africa, and the West Indies. It became a small but immensely profitable subset of the Atlantic trade
a popular Salem minister, was a threat to the Puritan leaders. He encouraged his fellow clergymen to make a clean break with the corrupt Church of England as well as challenging the legality of the Bay Colony's charter. This charter condemned for expropriating the land from the Indians without fair compensation. He also denied the authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior and was exiled. Williams fled to Rhode Island during the winter with the help of some friendly Indians. He built a Baptist Church in Providence, established complete freedom of religion, and accepted all religious outcasts.
Quakers originated in England during the mid-1600s. There were offensive to authorities both religious and civil because they refused to support the Church of England with taxes. They were persecuted in England and so they fled to the New World. Pennsylvania became the Quaker haven.
William Penn was attracted to the Quaker faith in 1660 at 16. Because Quakers were persecuted in England, Penn had ideas to go to the New World where other Quakers retreated to. He hoped to establish an asylum for his people as well as experiment with liberal ideas and make a profit at the same time. In 1681, he secured an immense grant of fertile land from the king due to a monetary debt owed to his deceased father by the crown. The king called the area Pennsylvania.
He was an English preacher who helped spread the Great Awakening throughout the colonies. He had a different style of evangelical preaching that revolutionized the spiritual life of the colonies.
Dominion of New England
Administrative union created by royal authority, incorporating all of New England, New York, and East and west Jersey. Placed under the rule of Sir Edmund Andros who curbed popular assemblies, taxed residents without their consent and strictly enforced Navigation Laws. Its collapse after the Glorious Revolution in England demonstrated colonial opposition to strict royal control
Relatively peaceful overthrow of the unpopular Catholic monarch, James II, replacing him with Dutch-born William III and Mary, daughter of James II. William and Mary accepted increased Parliamentary oversight and new limits on monarchical authority
These laws regulated colonial shipping, provided that only English ships would be allowed to trade in English and colonial ports, and made sure that all goods destined for the colonies would first pass through England.
The Olive Branch Petition
pledged English-American loyalty to the crown
The French wanted to control Louisiana...
...they wanted to control the mouth of the Mississippi River
The Seven Years' War was also known in English-America as
the French and Indian War; it ended the myth of British invincibility
"Virtual" representation meant that
every member of Parliament represented all British subjects
Laws passed in 1765 that mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax. The tax was imposed to raise revenue for the new military force
George Rogers Clark
He was the highest ranking military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. In 1778, he floated down the Ohio River with 175 men and captured the forts Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes.
A series of acts passed by Parliament in response to the Boston Tea Party. They were branded in America as "the massacre of American Liberty.
He was a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolution and was one of George Washington's most gifted and dependable officers
The site of 2 battles of the American Revolution in which the British won the 1st and Americans won the 2nd. These battles resulted in the surrender of British General Burgoyne and the French joining the American forces
This was the last land battle of the American Revolutionary War where British General Cornwallis surrendered to the American and French forces
The Articles of Confederation were ratified when...
all states claiming western lands promised to surrender them to the national government that would be created after ratification
Provisions of the Land Ordinances of 1785
a. money from land sales should be used to pay off the national debt
b. abolition of slavery in all of the United States
c. prohibition of slavery in the Old Northwest
d. retention of power in the national government
The issue that finally touched off the movement toward the Constitutional Convention was...
...the control of commerce
The Great Compromise
the measure that reconciled the New Jersey and Virginia plans and the constitutional convention, giving states proportional representation in the House and equal representation in the Senate.
Armed uprising of western Massachusetts debtors seeking lower taxes and an end to property foreclosures. Though quickly put down, the insurrection inspired fears of "mob rule" among leading Revolutionaries
determined that each slave would be counted as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of apportioning taxes and representation. The compromise granted disproportionate political power to Southern slave states
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution. Secured key rights for the people and reserved the states all powers not specifically delegated or prohibited i the Constitution
Convention of 1800 (or Treaty of Paris)
detached the US from its alliance with France at the price of American claims for damages resulting from French actions against U.S. commerce since the beginnings of the French revolutionary wars.
acts passed by a Federalist Congress raising the residency requirement for citizenship to 14 years and granting the president the power to deport dangerous foreigners in times of peace
enacted by the Federalist Congress in an effort to clamp down on Jeffersonian opposition, the law made anyone convicted of defaming government officials or interfering with government policies liable to imprisonment and a heavy fine; it expired in 1801
the transfer of debt from one party to another; in order to strengthen the Union, the government assumed the debt of the states from the Revolutionary War as a result tying the interest of wealthy lenders with that of the national government
Alexander Hamilton's Financial Plan
1. Shape the fiscal policies of the administration in a way that would favor the wealthy in order to get their political and monetary support
2. Bolster national credit by paying off their national debt at face value plus accumulated interest
3. assuming the debts of the states to chain the states more tightly together
4. used customs duties, excise tax, and tariffs to pay the debt
5. Proposed a Bank of the United States to provide a stable national currency and the government would be the major stockholder and in which the federal Treasure would deposit its surplus monies
He was the fourth Chief Justice of the United States and served as secretary of state under John Adams. His court opinions helped lay the basis for American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the United States a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches. He helped make sure the political and economic systems were based on a strong central government
the idea that the court alone has the last word on constitutionality
Napoleon chose to sell Louisiana to the US becase
a. he had suffered misfortunes in Santo Domingo
b. he hoped that the territory would one day help the United States thwart the ambitions of the British
c. he did not want to drive the United States into the arms of the British
d. yellow fever killed many French troops
he was the third Vice President under President Jefferson who political career ended when he shot and killed Alexander Hamilton after Hamilton accused him of plotting the secession of New England and New York. He was arrested and tried for treason but was eventually acquitted and fled to Europe
Components of Jay's Treaty:
1. The British promised to evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil 2. British consented to pay damages for the recent seizures of American ships.
3.. they didn't say anything about future maritime seizures.
4. They also forced British to bind the U.S. to pay the debts still owed to British merchants on pre-Revolutionary accounts.
Pickney's Treaty of 1795 with Spain
granted the Americans virtually everything they demanded, including free navigation of the Mississippi, the right deposit of New Orleans, and the large disputed territory of western Florida. The French were not happy with Jay's Treaty. French saw this an an initial step toward alliance with Britain and retaliated.
The French Treaty of 1800 (or Convention of 1800)
annulled the 22 year agreement between US and France
Reasons the British began to withdraw many of their earlier demands at the peace conference at Ghent
a. reverses in upper New York
b. a loss at Baltimore
c. increasing war weariness in Britain
d. concern about the still dangerous France
The Rush-Bagot Agreement
Limited naval power in the great lakes
The Tariff of 1816
was the first tariff aimed to protect the US industries; not revenue
Treaty of Ghent
Signed on December 24, 1814, in Ghent (modern day Belgium), it was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
An event spanning from December 15, 1814-January 4, 1815 in the United States during the War of 1812 in which New England's opposition to the war reached the point where secession from the United States was discussed. The end of the war with a return to the status quo ante bellum disgraced the Federalist Party, which disbanded in most places.
Failed proposal to prohibit the importation of slaves in Missouri leading to gradual emancipation. Southerns say this a a threat to he sectional balance between the North and South
speaker of the House of Representatives and political leader from Kentucky. He invented the document called "the American System" which stated some major ideas he believed that would help the Untied States.
The American System
Henry Clay's 3-pronged system to promote American industry. He advocated a strong banking system, a protective tariff and a federally funded transportation network
The House of Representatives decided the 1824 presidential election when
no candidate received a majority of the vote in the Electoral College
Ecological imperialism is best described as
the agressive exploitation of the bounty of the West
The Force Bill of 1833 provided that:
the president could use the army and navy to collect federal tariff duties
Father of the Factory System in the US
Reasons Jackson disliked the Bank of America:
1. It minted silver and gold coins but issued no paper money.
2. It controlled much of the nation's gold and silver.
3. It was a private institution.
4. It foreclosed on many western farms.
the idea that the US State can invalidate any federal law deemed unconstitutional.
He was the president of the Second Bank of the United States. He tried to get the bank re-instated with a new charter to expand length, but Jackson denied it; as a result he tried to turn the nation against Jackson by financial/economic debt.
"Trail of Tears"
Forced march of 15,000 Cherokee Indians from their Georgia and Alabama homes to Indian Territory. Some 4,000 Cherokee died on the arduous journey.
Alleged bargain between John Adams and Henry Clay in the 1924 election in which Clay supported Adams and agreed to help him win putting the House of Representatives in Adams' favor, despite Jackson receiving the most popular votes
Tariff of Abominations
Noteworthy for its unprecedentedly high duties in imports. Southerners vehemently opposed the Tariff arguing that it hurt Southern farmers, who did not enjoy the protection of tariffs but were forced to pay higher prices for manufactures.
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