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Challenge B Saxon Vocabulary
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Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (89)
numeral
A symbol or group of symbols that represent a number.
number
When you are thinking of a number in your head.
counting numbers
The numbers used to count; the members of the set {1,2,3,4,5...}. Also called natural numbers.
whole numbers
The members of the set {0,1,2,3,4...}.
integers
The set of counting numbers, their opposites, and zero; the members of the set {-2,-1,0,1,2,...}.
place value
The value of a digit based on its position within a number.
factor
noun: one of two or more numbers that are multiplied.
5 x 6 = 30 (five and six are factors)
product
The result of multiplication.
5 x 4 = 20 (twenty is product)
addend
One of two or more numbers that are added to find a sum.
7 + 3 = 10 (seven and three are addends)
sum
The result of addition.
7+ 6 = 13 (13 is sum)
minuend
A number from which another number is subtracted.
12 - 8 = 4 (12 is minuend)
subtrahend
A number that is subtracted.
12 - 8 = 4 (8 is subtrahend)
difference
The result of subtraction.
12 - 8 = 4 (4 is difference)
quotient
The result of division.
12 / 3 = 4 (four is quotient)
divisor
A number by which another number is divided.
12 / 3 = 4 (3 is divisor)
dividend
A number that is divided.
12 / 3 = 4 (12 is dividend)
digits
Any of the symbols used to write numbers: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9.
decimal point
A numeral that contains a decimal point.
expanded notation
A way of writing a number as the sum of the products of the digits and the place values of the digits.
origin
The location of the number 0 on a number line.
opposites
Two numbers whose sum is zero; a positive number and a negative number whose absolute values are equal.
coordinate
A number used to locate a point on a number line.
inverse operations
Operations that "undo" one another.
algorithm
Any process for solving a mathematical problem.
decimal numbers
A numeral that contains a decimal point.
decimal fractions
A decimal number.
line
A straight collection of points extending in opposite directions without end.
power
The value of an exponential expression.
point
An exact position on a line, on a plane, or in space.
ray
A part of a line that begins at a point and continues without end in one direction.
perpendicular
Two lines that intersect at right angles.
right angle
an angle that forms a square corner and measures 90degrees. often marked with a small square.
straight angle
An angle that measures 180degrees and thus forms a straight line.
obtuse angle
An angle whose measure is between 90 and 180 degrees.
perimeter
The distance around a closed, flat shape.
divisible
Able to be divided by a whole number without a remainder.
composite number
A counting number greater than 1 that is divisible by a number other than itself and 1. Every composite number has three or more factors.
prime number
A counting number greater than 1 whose only two factors are the number 1 and itself.
greatest common factor
The largest whole number that is a factor of two or more indicated numbers.
numerator
The top term of a fraction.
denominator
The bottom term of a fraction.
repetend
The repeating digits of a decimal number. The symbol for a repetend is an overbar.
expanded notation
A way of writing a number as the sum of the products of the digits and the place values of the digits.
exponent
The upper number in an exponential expression that shows how many times the base is to be used as a factor.
base
(1) A designated side (or face) of a geometric figure. (2) the lower number in an exponential expression.
exponential expression
An expression that indicates that the base is to be used as a factor the number of times shown by the exponent.
average
The number found when the sum of two or more numbers is divided by the number of addends in the sum; also called mean.
unite multiplier
A ratio equal to 1 that is composed of two equivalent measures.
mode
The number or numbers that appear most often in a list of date.
median
The middle number of a list of data when the numbers are arranged in order from the least of the greatest.
mean
The number found when the sum of two or more numbers is divided by the number of addends in the sum.
reciprocal
The results of inventing a fraction.
multiple
A product of a counting number and another number.
least common multiple
The smallest whole number that is a multiple of two or more given numbers.
range
The difference between the largest number and smallest number in a list.
altitude
The perpendicular distance from the base of a triangle to the opposite vertex; also called height.
variable
A letter used to represent a number that has not been designated.
rate
A ratio of two measures.
ratio
A comparison of two numbers by division.
equation
A statement that uses the symbol "=" to show that two quantities are equal.
coordinate plane
A grid on which any point can be identified by an ordered pair of numbers.
quadrant
A region of a coordinate plane formed when two perpendicular number lines intersect at their origins.
root
A value of a radical expression.
radical expression
An expression that indicates the root of a number. A radical expression contains a radical sign, √.
volume
The amount of space a solid shape occupies.
right solid
A geometric solid whose sides are perpendicular to its base.
surface area
The total area of the surface of a geometric solid.
scientific notation
A method of writing a number as a product of a decimal number and a power of 10.
percent
A fraction whose denominator of 100 is expressed as a percent sign (%).
proportion
A statement that shows two ratios are equal.
cross product
The product of the numerator of one fraction and the denominator of another.
fraction bar
The line segment that separates the numerator and the denominator of a fraction.
vinculum
A bar drawn over digits in a decimal number to indicate that the digits repeat endlessly.
denominate number
A combination of a number and a descriptor that designates units. Examples are 4 ft., 16 tons, 42 miles per hour.
units
A quantity or amount adopted as a standard of measurement, such as dollars, hours, or grams.
conditional equation
An equation whose truth or falsity depends on the number or numbers used to replace one or more variables.
axis
A number line used to reference points.
properties
A character or attribute that something has. Such as color, height, weight, etc.
radicand
The number under the radical sign.
Addition Property of Equality
The same number can be added to both sides of an equation without changing the solution to the equation.
Subtraction Property of Equality
The same number can be subtracted from both sides of an equation without changing the solution to the equation.
Multiplication Property of Equality
Both sides of an equation can be multiplied by the same number (except zero) without changing the solution to the equation.
Division Property of Equality
Both sides of an equation can be divided by the same number (except zero) without changing the solution to the equation.
Formula for Distance
Distance = rate x time
Formula for Time
Time = rate x distance
Formula for Rate
speed
Formula for Circumference
Circumference = πd
Formula for Area of Circle
Area of a circle = πr²
index
The index of the root is the small number inside the √.
For example: ³√
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