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54 terms

Anthro Power and Violence

test review guide
STUDY
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The way power, or the ability to control other's behavior is distributed or embedded in society
political organization
Political organization refers to the way, ________, or the ability to control others behavior, is/are distributed or embedded in society.
power
An egalitarian, autonomous group composed of related people who occupy a single region is called a(n) ______.
band
The Kpelle are an example of a ______.
chiefdom
Bands and tribes are both ______.
uncentralized and egalitarian
The form of social organization typical of hunter- gathers is the ______.
band/tribe
A ____ is a regional policy in which two or more local groups are organized under a single authority figure at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people
chiefdom
A group of nominally independent communities occupying a specific region, sharing a common language and culture, which is integrated by some unifying factor. This is what?
tribe
Richard Wrangham concluded about violence and sexual selection?
Females' evolutionary interests cannot be met without cooperation from males.
Age-grade systems and common interest associations are effective methods of integrating small, autonomous units such as bands into larger social units. These methods may be described as _______ systems of political organization.
nonkinship
19th century Darwin's theory of sexual differences between male and females was called
theory of sexual selection
The Tonowi (Big Man) of the Kapauku of the New Guinea acquires political power by
all of the above
The basis of the Tonowi's wealth is ______.
pigs
Ranked society in which every member has a position in the hierarchy, an individual's status is determined by membership in the descent group
chiefdom
Primary means of distributing goods in a chiefdom is
redistribution
A centralized political system with the power to coerce is a
state
The state is distinctive in the extensiveness of its legitimate use of _____ to regulate the affairs of its citizens
force
In a chiefdom, an individual's status is determined by membership in a ____
descent group
The ____ is the most formal political organization and is one of the hallmarks of civilization. Political power centralized in a government, which may legitimately force to regulates affairs of its citizens.
state
Cross-cultural comparison of systems of political organizations reveals that _____.
women play important role in political decisions even when they are not visible public leaders
Among the Igbo of Nigeria,_____.
men and women each had separate autonomous spheres of political activity
When the British imposed colonial rule on the Igbo of Nigeria,_____.
they didn't recognize the political power of women and introduced changes that made women subordinate to women
At the heart of political organization is ____.
control of unacceptable social behavior
How is social order maintained in bands and tribes?
Gossip and fear of supernatural forces
Wape villagers avoid quarreling with each other because ____.
They believe that a hunter misses his prey only because of the intervention of ancestral ghosts who are angry with the quarreling in the community.
Sanctions refer to _____.
externalized social controls
Awards, titles, recognition, corporal punishment, and ostracism from community are all examples of
sanctions
_____ sanctions attempt to precisely and explicitly regulate peoples' behavior. they can be positive or negative.
formal
Which of the following is NOT a form of political organization?
group
Adamson Hoebel defined _____ as social norm enforced by legitimate use of physical force.
law
The functions of law include ______.
-defining relationships and proper behavior(under specified circumstances) for society's members(rights and duties with respect to each other)
-allows the specified authority to employ coercion in enforcement of sanctions
-redefines social relations and ensure social flexibility(must be able to change).
In Western Societies, "personal offenses" pertains to offenses against ______.
an individual
When a disruptive dispute occurs among members of the Ju/'hoansi or Inuit bands, usually defined as offenses against _____.
individual/kin group
Method of resolving disputes where disputing parties voluntarily arrive at mutually satisfactory agreement ____.
negotiation
"Warlike" behavior has been widely observed in groups of ______ in Tanzania.
chimpanzees
Which of the following are likely to be associated with warfare?
all of the above
The type of political organization that is most likely to resolve conflict with neighboring social unit by means of social warfare is the
tribe
Which one of the following is part of an uncentralized political system?
a.Band
b.Chiefdom
c.State
d.A and B only
e.B and C only
a.Band
The use of wealth to support the Tonowis power belief in the divine right of thing to rule; the oldest living male becoming head of daromey state of West Africa—What do these have in common?
They represent what is considered to be the legitimate basis of political authority in
Power used on _____ always results in an authority
a.Legitimacy
b.Mediation
c.Negotiators
d.Sa
Legitimacy
____ is the ability of individuals to impose their will on others; even against their will
force
An important pioneer in the anthropological study of law was ___
a.A.L. Krober
b.George Peter Murdock
c.John Wesely Powell
d.E. Adamson Hoebel
e.Peggy Reeves Sanday
Adamson Hoebel
1.In 1980, _____ as practitioner of dispute management, helped the US and the USSR replace their absolute "hot line" with fully equipped nuclear crisis centers in each capital
a.Sue Ellen Jacobs
b.William L. Ury
c.Margaret Boone
d.Alan Kolata
e.Harald Prins
William L. Ury
Which of the following political systems would be considered a centralized system?
a.States
b.Bands
c.Chiefdoms
d.Tribes
e.A and c
A and C
Among the Kapauku of west New Guinea the Big Man is called the tonowi, or "rich one." The toniwi's wealth comes from his success at _______.
a.cattle herding
b.shepherding
c.trading stocks and bonds
d.pig breeding
e.raising chickens
pig breeding
Which of the following would invoke informal sanctions against an individual in a restaurant in the United States?
a.Tearing up tables and chairs
b.fighting
c.threatening customers
d.stealing food
e.going barefoot
going barefoot
The _____ of Liberia in West Africa are a classic example of a chiefdom.
a.Nuer
b.Kpelle
c.Inuit
d.Hutu
e.Tutsi
Kpelle
The _____ authority system is characterized by a highly developed dual monarchy, a hereditary aristocracy, and elaborate kinship rituals, as well as by statewide age sets.
a.Swazi
b.Azande
c.Masai
d.Kikuyu
e.Zulu
Swazi
In the United States, the man who wears tennis shorts to a church service may be subject to a variety of _____ sanctions, ranging from disapproving glances from the clergy to the chuckling of other parishioners.
a.Social
b.anti-social
c.positive
d.formal
e.informal
informal
Awards like the Nobel Peace Prize are examples of _____ sanctions, by which societies promote approved behavior.
a.Positive
b.negative
c.political
d.informal
e.economic
positive
We have ample reason to suppose war has become a problem only in the past _____ years, since the invention of food-production techniques and especially centralized states.
a.5,000
b.20,000
c.10,000
d.50,000
e.75,000
5,000
Which of the following of minority nations is trying to improve its political position by founding an independent state?
a.Kurds
b.Palestines
c.Chechens
d.Aceh
e.All of the above
All of the above
Which of the following societies is best known for witchcraft?
a.Kpelle
b.Aztecs
c.Maya
d.Azande
e.Crow
Azande
Playing a leading role in the development of the anthropology of law, _____ has taken on specialists in the fields of law, children's issues, nuclear energy, and science, critically questioning the basic assumptions under which these experts operate.
a.Ralph Nader
b.Margaret Mead
c.Martha Knack
d.Laura Nader
e.Ruth Benedict
Laura Nader