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RA#1 Metabolism Part 2 (Jones)
Terms in this set (15)
What are the sources of acetyl CoA?
palmitate - fatty acid
acetoacetate - ketone body
glucose -> pyruvate -> acetyl CoA
What is the cellular location for the krebs cycle?
what are the products of the krebs cycle?
acetyl-CoA + 3 NAD + FAD + GDP + Pi + 2 H20 -> 2 CO2 + CoASH + 3 NADH + 3H + FADH2 + GTP
what is the origin of the carbon, released as CO2, during the krebs cycle?
how is the krebs cycle regulated?
citrate synthase (inhibited by citrate)
isocitrate dehydrogenase (activated by ADP and Ca2+ and inhibited by NADH and ATP)
alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (activated by Ca2+ and inhibited by NADH and succinyl CoA)
name the krebs cycle intermediates that can serve as precursors and the pathways that these precursors feed into?
citrate --> fatty acid synthesis
alpha-KG --> AA synthesis --> neurotransmitters
succinyl CoA --> heme synthesis
malate --> gluconeogenesis
oxaloacetate --> AA synthesis
what are the inhibitors of the electron transport chain and their site of inhibition?
rotenone, amytal = transfer of electrons from complex I to coenzyme Q
antimycin A = transfer of electrons from complex III to cytochrome C
atractyloside = inhibits adenine nucleotide translocase
oligomycin = inhibits proton flow through Fo component of ATP synthase
CO = transfer of electrons from complex IV to oxygen
CN = transfer of electrons through complex IV to oxygen
how does atractyloside inhibit ATP synthase?
It is similar to ADP, binding in the site of ADP
how does liver maintain fasting blood glucose levels?
glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
glucagon is catabolic hormone that functions to mobilize fuel to maintain blood glucose levels. Fat is broken down into _____. Glycogen and proteins are broken down into _____.
Fat --> acetyl CoA
Glycogen and proteins --> glucose
how does alcohol consumption inhibit gluconeogenesis?
ethanol increases NADH. High NADH/NAD+ ratio:
(-) fatty acid oxidation
(-) krebs cycle
(+) fatty acids and trigylceride synthesis
(+) ketone bodies
(+) pyruvate --> lactate due to excess NADH, so lactate production
which molecules can act as substrates for gluconeogenesis?
lactate --> pyruvate --> OAA --> PEP --> GNG
- muscle and other non-mito cells
glycerol --> G3P --> DHAP --> GNG
- adipose tissue
gluconeogenic AA --> TCA cycle --> OAA --> PEP --> GNG
- muscle: alanine
what is the main site for gluconeogenesis?
mitochondria and cytoplasm
what is gluconeogenesis?
creation of glucose
what are the three enzymes exclusive to gluconeogenesis?
pyruvate carboxylase (mitochondria): pyruvate to OAA
PEP carboxykinase (cytoplasm): OAA --> PEP
Frucotose 1,6-biphosphatase: fructose-1,6 bisphosphate --> fructose-6 phosphate
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RA#1 Metabolism (Jones)
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