Central Business District (CBD) is the commercial (and sometimes cultural) heart of a city. It is dominated shops and offices many of which are found in tall skyscrapers.
Central Place Theory
A theory formulated by Walter Christaller in the early 1900s that explains the size and distribution of cities in terms of a competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed populations.
Command and control centers
Second level of cities that contains the headquarters of many large corporations, well-developed banking facilities, and concentrations of other business services, including insurance, accounting, advertising, law, and public relations.
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
a process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
Developed by Harris, uses the same idea as a Peripheral Model tied together by a beltway or ring road.
the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
Metropolitan statistical area. 85% of people live in these.These are cities with at least 50,000 people and all the counties around the city depend upon it.
Multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
A country's largest city-ranking atop the urban hierarchy-most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital as well.
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
site in which dwellings are dispersed throughout the city rather than clustered in a large project.
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
the minimum number of people required to support a particular good, shop or office. For example, large stores such as Marks & Spencer have a threshold population of over 100,000, whilst shoe shops have a threshold population of about 25,000
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
zone in transistion
the inner city area around the CBD. It is a zone of mixed land uses, ranging from car parks and derelict buildings to slums, cafes and older houses, often converted to offices or industrial use.