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5th Grade Math
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Terms in this set (56)
Counting Numbers
The numbers used to count.
Sequence
A list of numbers arranged according to a certain rule.
Digits
Any of the symbols used to write numbers.
Whole Numbers
The counting numbers and the number 0.
Place Value
the value of a digit based on its position within a number
Expanded Form
A way of writing a number that shows the value of each digit
Addends
Any one of the numbers in an addition problem
Commutative Property of Addition
Changing the order of addends does not change their sum. In symbolic form a+b=b+a
Identity Property of Addition
The sum of any number and 0 is equal to the initial number. In symbolic form a=0=a
Ordinal Numbers
Number that describe position or order. "First", "Second", and "third" are ordinal numbers.
Inverse Operation
An operation that undoes another
Integers
The set of counting numbers, their opposites, and zero; the members of the set (...-2,-1,0,1,2,...)
Expression
A number, a letter, or a combination of both. Do not include comparison symbols, such as an equal sign.
Quotient
The result of division
Associative Property of Addition
The grouping of addends does not affect their sum. In symbolic form, a+(b+c)= (a+b)+c
Associative Property of Multiplication
The grouping of factors does not affect their product. In symbolic form, a x (bxc)= (axb )x c
Parallel Lines
Lines that stay the same distance apart; lines that do not cross
Right Angle
An angle that forms a square corner and measures 90 degrees. It is often marked with a small square.
Polygon
A closed, flat shape with straight sides.
Triangle
A polygon with three sides and three angles
Polyhedron
A solid in 3D with flat polygonal faces, straight edges, and sharp corners
Similar
Having the same shape but not necessarily the same size. Dimensions of similar figures are proportional.
Right Triangle
A triangle whose largest angle measures 90 degrees
Equilateral Triangle
A triangle in which all sides are the same length and all angles are the same measure.
Mixed Number
A number expressed as a whole number plus a fraction
Scalene Triangle
A triangle with three sides of different length
Divisor
A number by which another number is divided
Dividend
A number that is divided
Geometric Sequence
A sequence in which each term is found by multiplying the previous term by a fixed amount
Fibonacci Sequence
A famous sequence in mathematics, which follows an addition pattern. 1,1,2,3,5,8,... In this example, each term equals the sum of the two terms before it.
Length
A measure of the distance between any two points
Fraction
A number that names a part of a whole
Isosceles Triangle
A triangle with at least two sides of equal length and two angles of equal measure.
Statistics
A branch of mathematics that deals with the collection, analysis, organization, and display of numerical data.
Frequency Tables
A table that is used to tally and display the number of times an event or outcome occurs
Line Plot
A method of plotting a set of numbers by placing a mark above a number line each time it occurs in the set
Outlier
A number that is distant from most of the other numbers in a list of data
Mode
The number or numbers that appear the most often in a list of data
Range
The difference between the largest number nd the smallest number in a list
Median
The middle number (or the average of the two central numbers) of a list of data when the numbers are arranged in order from the least to the greatest
bar graph
a graph that uses rectangles (bars) to show numbers or measurements.
circumference
the distance around a circle; the perimeter of a circle.
radius
the distance from the center of a circle to a point on a circle.
diameter
the distance across a circle through its center.
probability
a way of describing the likelihood of an event; the ratio of favorable outcomes to all possible outcomes.
histogram
a special type of bar graph that displays data in intervals of equal size with no space between bars.
stem-and-leaf plot
a method of graphing a collection of numbers by placing the "stem" digits (or initial digits) in one column and the "leaf" digits (or remaining digits) out to the right.
venn diagram
a diagram made of circles used to display data.
area
the number of square units needed to cover a surface.
exponent
the upper number in an exponential expression; it shows how many times the base is used as a factor.
prime number
a counting number greater than 1 whose only two factors are the number and one itself.
composite number
a counting number greater than 1 that is divisible by a number other than itself and 1. It will have 3 or more factors, and can be expressed as a product of two or more prime numbers.
transformation
changing a figure's position through rotation, reflection, or translation.
measure of central tendency
a value that describes a property of a list of data, such as the middle number of the list or the number that appears in the list most often.
ratio
a comparison of two numbers by division.
volume
the amount of space a geometric solid occupies. It is measured in cubic units.
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