AP Human Geography: Geography

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Terms in this set (...)

space
geometric surface of the Earth
place
an area of bounded space of some human importance
region
a type of place
toponym
a place name
sequent occupancy
the succession of groups and cultural influences throughout a place's history
place-specific culture
ex. Sante Fe, Mexico, a complex mix of multiple Native American, Spanish colonial, and modern American influences based upon the sequence of past and current societal influences
scale
relationship of an object or place to the earth as a whole
map scale
describes the ratio of distance on a map and distance in the real world in absolute terms
relative scale
(AKA the scale of analysis) which describes the level of aggregation
level of aggregation
the level at which you group things together for examination
formal region
an area of bounded space that possesses some homogenous characteristic or uniformity
linguistic region
everyone speaks the same language, but can be very different culturally
culture region boundaries
The American "Dixie" south, fuzzy borders
political region boundaries
Boundary between countries, finite and well-defined
Environmental region boundaries
transitional and measurable
Ecotone
the environmental transition zone between two biomes
functional region
areas that have a central place (or node) that is a focus or point of origin that expresses some practical purpose, the influence of this point is strongest in the areas close to the center, and the strength of influence diminishes as distance increases from that point
market area
a type of functional region, home pro sport team example, more coverage and media in the city, diminishes as you move away
area of influence
outlet malls, shoppers travelling from longer distances but making a fewer number of trips
intervening opportunity
the shoppers who are "just passing through", who see a very brief intervening opportunity to do some discount shopping
vernacular region
based upon the perception or collective mental map of the region's residents
absolute location
defines a point or place on the map using coordinates such as latitude and longitude
relative location
refers to the location of a place compared to a known place or geographic feature, McLean and DC
Equator
0 latitude
North and South Poles
90 degrees latitude
Prime Meridian
0 degrees longitude
International Date Line (sort of)
180 degrees longitude
site
the physical characteristics of a place, such as the fact that NYC is located on a large, deep water harbor, next to the Atlantic ocean
situation
refers to the place's interrelatedness with other places, NYC and New England, port-of-call for Atlantic Circular Trade
absolute distance
in terms of linear units
relative distance
in terms of the degree of interaction between places or in units of time traveled
distance decay
means that the further away different places are from a place of origin, the less likely interaction will be with the original place
Tobler's Law
a principle that expresses relative distance, states that all places are interrelated, but closer places are more related than further ones
friction of distance
the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
space-time compression
decresed time and relative distance between places
modes of transportation
airplanes, reduce travel time between two distant points, and as a result increase interaction
central places
any node of human activity
Central Place Theory
developed in the 1930s by the German geographer Walter Christaller, saw the economic world as an abstract spatial model, in which city location and the level of urban economic exchange could be analyzed using central places within hexagonal market areas, which overlapped each other at different scales
core and periphery
Mormon culture in Salt Lake City and the greater Western US
cluster
when things are grouped together
agglomeration
when clustering occurs purposefully around a central point or an economic growth pole
random pattern
when there is no rhyme or reason to the distribution of a spatial phenomenon
scaterred
objects that are normally ordered but appeared dispersed
linear
if the pattern is a straight line
sinuous
if the pattern is wavy
metes and bounds
township and range
based upon lines of latitude and longitude
arithmetic density
the number of things per square unit of distance
agricultural density
refers to the number of people per square unit of land actively under cultivation
physiologic density
measures the number of people per square unit of arable (being farmed or could be farmed) land
Expansion diffusion
the pattern originates in a central place and then expands outward in all directions to other locations
hierarchical diffusion
the pattern originates in a first order location then moves down to second-order locations and from each of these to subordinate locations at increasingly local scales
relocation diffusion
the pattern begins at a point of origin and then crosses a significant physical barrier, such as an ocean, mountain range, or desert, then relocates on the other side, often the journey can influence and modify the items being diffused
contagious
the pattern begins at a point of origin and then moves outward to nearby locations, especially those on adjoining transportation lines, this could be used to describe a disease but can also describe the movement of other things, such as news in rural regions
stimulus diffusion
here a general and underlying principle diffuses and then stimulates the creation of new products or ideas
topographic map
shows the contour lines of elevation, as well as the urban and vegetation surface with road, building, river, and other natural landscape features. These maps are highly accurate in terms of location and topography. They are used for engineering surveys and land navigation, especially in wilderness regions
thematic map
a number of different map types: chloropleth maps, isoline maps, dot density maps, flow-line maps, cartograms
chloropleth maps
express the geographic variability of a particular theme using color variations
isoline maps
dot-density maps
flow-line maps
cartograms
equal-area projections
attempt to maintain the relative spatial science and the areas on the map, however these can distort the actual shape of polygons, such as the Lambert projections bending and squishing the northern Canadian islands to keep them at the same map scale as southern Canada on a flat sheet of paper
conformal projections
attempt to maintain the shape of polygons on the map, the downside is that conformal projections can distort the relative area from one part of the map to the other, for instance, in the commonly used Mercator projection, the shape of Greenland is preserved, but it appears to be much larger in size than it actually is
Robinson projection and Goode's homolosine projection
map projections that try to balance area and form, sacrificing a bit of both to create a more visually practical representation on the earth's surface
model
an abstract generalization of real-world geographies that share a common pattern
spatial models
attempt to show the commonalities in pattern among similar landscpaes
urban models
try to show how different cities have similar spatial relationships and economic or social structures
non-spatial models
the demographic transition model, for instance, uses population data to construct a general model of the dynamic growth in national scale populations without reference to space
concentric zone model
cost-to-distance relationship in urban real estate prices, the resulting bid-rent curve explains why land prices are relatively low in suburban areas, but exponentially higher in the central business distrcit
gravity model
a mathematical model that is used in a number of different types of spatial analysis, used to calculate transportation flow between two points, determine the area of influence of a city's businesses, and estimate the flow of migrants to a particular place: Equation - (Location1Population x Location2Population)/Distance^2
GIS
Geographical Information Systems, incorporate one r more data layers in a computer program capable of spatial analysis and mapping, data layers are numerical, coded, and textual data that is attributed to specific geographic coordinates or areas
GPS
Global Positioning Systems, utilize a network of satellites, which emit a measurable radio signal, when this signal is available from three or more Navstar satellites, a GPS receiver is able to triangulate a coordinate location and display map data for the user
Aerial photography and Satellite based remote sensing
make up a large-amount of the geographic and GIS data used today, aerial photographs are images of the earth from aircraft, printed on film, while remote sensing satellites use a computerized scanner to record data from the earth's surface, these data include not only visual light waverlengths, but also infrared and radar information