a method of interpretation and analysis of aspects of human cognition, behavior, culture, and experience that focuses on relationships of contrast between elements in a conceptual system that reflect patterns underlying a superficial diversity.
Seeks to relieve the person of neuroses via the use of free association and dream analysis to uncover repressed conflicts that are subsequently re - lived on an emotional and intellectual level. This continues until personality is formed.
Levels of Consciousness
Consciousness, Preconscious, Unconscious
Mental Activities that we are fully aware of
Feelings, thoughts, and ideas of which we are not currently aware but can bring awareness to relatively easily.
Feelings, thoughts, memories, and desires of which we are unaware. Experiences or ideas that create distress are pushed into the unconscious.
Is a mechanism whereby, in order to relate to significant others, an individual may "split" the significant other into two parts, good and bad, in an effort to cope with the painful feelings associated with that person.
Elisabeth Kubler - Ross Stages of dying Stage 1: Denial
*The individual disbelieves that her or she is dying.
*This stage may be identified as a state of shock that gradually remits.
Elisabeth Kubler - Ross Stages of dying Stage 2: Anger
* This stage is marked by rage and resentment towards others or God and is marked with frustration.
* Individuals may find it difficult to relate to the dying person.
Elisabeth Kubler - Ross Stages of dying Stage 3: Bargaining
*Efforts to strike a deal with fate, God, or with others may be seen.
Elisabeth Kubler - Ross Stages of dying Stage 4: Depression
* Deep sadness develops as the dying person becomes increasingly weak and uncomfortable.
* Fear of death may occur.
* The individual, as well as significant others, feel a sense of tremendous loss.
Elisabeth Kubler - Ross Stages of dying Stage 5: Acceptance
* The individual is often void of feeling.
* The dying person's struggle against death ends.
Stage 1 of a Crisis
Individual experiences a crisis or precipitating event
Stage 2 of a Crisis
The individual expresses increased tension and shock, possible denial of the crisis situation, and failure of customary coping skills.
Stage 3 of a Crisis
The individual experiences sharply escalating tension, varying levels of depression, and feelings of being overwhelmed, confused, helpless of hopeless.
Stage 4 of a Crisis
Individual attempts to use different means of coping. Can be maladaptive, which can result in emotional collapse or suicide, or they can be adaptive and can result in regaining a new equilibrium at the same level or higher after crisis.
First evident between 6 and 8 months of age, when a baby is distressed when separated from his or her primary caregiver.
First manifested at approximately 8 months of age, when a baby is distressed by seeing a stranger's face as opposed to the face of a familiar person, such as the child's mother.
Refers to the desire to be near the people whom we are attached.
Refers to returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of a fear or threat.
Is a point of security (usually the mother) from which the child can explore the surrounding environment without fear of abandonment.
Refers to anxiety that occurs in the absence of the attached figure.
One of the eleven "Curative Factors" in group therapy by Yalom. Can result when group members help each other. The experience of being able to give something to another person can lift a member's self - esteem. Members can develop more adaptive coping styles and interpersonal skills by receiving help from others.
One of the eleven "Curative Factors" in group therapy by Yalom.
Dimensions of Freud's Theory
(1) Levels of Consciousness (2) Structure of Personality (3) Psychosexual Stages of Child Development
Unconscious part of personality and include instincts. It acts upon pleasure and immediate gratification.
Is the psychological component of the personality that is represented by our conscious decision-making process.
Is the ethical component of the personality and provides the moral standards by which the ego operates. The criticisms, prohibitions, and inhibitions form a person's conscience, and its positive aspirations and ideals represent one's idealized self-image.
Is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido (sexual energy) that develops in five stages.
Oral Stage (birth - 1 year of age)
Stage 1 in Psychosexual stages of Development. Focuses on the mouth as the source of pleasure and need fulfillment.
Anal Stage (2- 3 years of age)
Stage 2 in Psychosexual stages of Development. Is characterized by the focus of attention directed toward teaching the child control over bowel and urinary functions.
Phallic Stage (3 - 6 years of age)
Stage 3 in Psychosexual stages of Development. Focuses on the penis, clitoris, and vulva as the primary source of pleasure. The superego develops during this stage.
Latency Period (6 - 11 years of age)
Stage 4 in Psychosexual stages of Development. Is characterized by the repression of sexual feelings, even through the genital area continues to be the primary zone of gratification.
Genital Stage ( 12 years of age - adulthood)
Stage 5 in Psychosexual stage of Development. Is characterized by the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics, and the primary focus of erotic pleasure is the genitals. During this stage the child's focus turns to members of the opposite sex in normal development.
The theory that human and animal behavior can be explained in terms of conditioning, without appeal to thoughts or feelings, and that psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns.
Is defined as a stimulus that innately evokes a response in the organism (e.g. the meat powder that Pavlov presented to his dogs that resulted in the unconditioned or innate response of salivation).
Is an innate response to a stimulus (e.g. the salivation of Pavlov's dogs when presented with the unconditioned stimulus of the meat powder).
Is a stimulus that does not innately evoke a response in an organism but that the organism learns to respond to because it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus in the past (e.g. Pavlov's dogs learned to respond to the ringing of a bell because the bell had been repeatedly paired with the presentation of the meat powder).
Is the organism's learned response to a conditioned stimulus (e.g. Pavlov's dogs learned to the ringing of the bell was salivation).
Is described by Piaget as the incorporation of aspects of one's environment into an existing thought structure.
Is another way of learning that refers to modifying current thought structure to incorporate a new, perceived feature of the environment.
Sensorimotor (birth - 2 years of age)
Stage 1 in Piaget's Cognitive development. During this stage, an infant's knowledge of the world is limited to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activities. The child has simple motor responses to sensory stimuli. Children utilize skills and abilities from infancy to learn more about the environment.
Pre - operational (2 - 3 years of age)
Stage 2 in Piaget's Cognitive development. In this stage, children use new abilities to represent objects in a wide variety of activities, but not in an organized, fully logical fashion. This stage involves children using objects to represent something in a play and / or pretend manner.
Concrete Operations (7 - 11 years of age)
Stage 3 in Piaget's Cognitive development. During this stage, children begin thinking logically and are able to utilize their new cognitive skills of reversibility and decentration to think about the steps of a process in any order. They understand that if they pour water from a wide glass to a tall, thin glass, the amount of water stays the same.
Formal Operations (11 - 18 years of age)
Stage 4 in Piaget's Cognitive development. The young person now has the ability to reason not only about tangible objects and events but also about hypothetical or abstract ones. They utilize rational thinking and abstract reasoning.
Zone of Proximal Development
Used to describe the range of tasks that an individual can complete while learning new information.
Refers to an experienced adult providing more help to a child who is attempting a difficult task and then less help and support as the task becomes easier for the child.
The Child's use of Language
In the learning process enables the child to more readily form concepts and, therefore, to engage in the thinking process.
Is a type of leadership style is exemplified when a leader dictates policies and procedures, decides what goals are to be achieved, and directs and controls all activities without any meaningful participation by the subordinates. Such a leader has full control of the team, leaving low autonomy within the group.
Is a type of leadership style in which members of the group take a more participative role in the decision-making process. Everyone is given the opportunity to participate, ideas are exchanged freely, and discussion is encouraged.
Laissez - faire
Is a type of leadership style in which leaders are hands-off and allow group members to make the decisions. Researchers have found that this is generally the leadership style that leads to the lowest productivity among group members.
Ego Defense Mechanisms
Are unconscious strategies used by the ego to minimize distress caused by the conflicting demands of the id and superego.
Is the seeking of success in one area of life as a substitute for success in another area of life that has been limited because of personal or environmental barriers. An example would be a disabled athlete becoming a computer expert.
Is the transformation of anxiety into a physical dysfunction, such as paralysis or blindness, which does not have a physiological basis. An example would be an individual who was abused and became blind as a defense against further abuse.
Is the refusal to acknowledge an aspect of reality, including one's experience, because to do so would result in overwhelming anxiety.
Is a shifting of negative feelings one has about a person or situation onto a different person or situation.
Is a mechanism by which anxiety is handled through identifying with the person or thing producing the anxiety such as "identifying the kidnapper."