American History Terms Set 1
Terms in this set (55)
A movement that gathered public visibility beginning in the 1830s; dedicated to the immediate and complete abolition of slavery in the
A term describing a cluster of ideas that located political economic virtue in agricultural employment, including independent land ownership and self-provision from the land, minimal land taxation, decentralized patterns of
living, and patriarchy (in both gender and racial terms)
Popularized by Henry Clay, this became the Whig
economic platform and included federal government sponsorship for infrastructure ("internal improvements"), federal subsidies for manufacturing, and a fiscal system that helped fund entrepreneurship and contain the costs
Term applied to describe the Church of England and its doctrines or to individual members of that Church; not actually used before the 19th century.
The larger segment of opinion that opposed slavery, but not necessarily through immediate abolition
The process by which immigrants are brought into conformity with the dominant culture around them and in which they embrace the dominant values and reject those associated with their culture or country of origin.
The pattern of alternating economic expansions and contractions that characterizes production and consumption in the various forms of unregulated market economies.
A system of religious doctrine developed by John Calvin that taught the unlimited sovereignty and power of God in ordering all human affairs and, thereby, undercut the demands for loyalty required by many governments and state-sponsored churches; its specific teachings are sometimes defined by the acronym TULIP (total depravity, unconditional election, limited atonement, irresistible grace, perseverance of the saints).
An economic system in which (a) goods and services are sold at prices higher than their actual cost of production, with the difference between the two saved or reinvested in the production of still more goods and services; (b) resources for exchange and for initial investments in production
are made available in the form of credit from fi nancial institutions, such as banks; (c) minimal state regulation allows free movement of credit,
resources, and commercial strategies; and (d) a spirit of entrepreneurship, rational abstraction, and disciplined work habits prevails.
A system of hierarchical social organization, based on acquired or inherited property holding and wealth and attaching various cultural attributes to each class
In the 19th century, this term described a variety of plans proposed for repatriating freed slaves back to Africa rather than integrating them into civil and social life.
common sense philosophy
Term used to describe a system of presentational
realism that asserted that the mind could directly know the objects of its ideas and, as such, could have direct and accurate intuitions of both objective reality and the moral content of objects and of internal mental processes, from which a rational and orderly system of understanding can be constructed on inductive (or Baconian) principles
The production and organization of symbols, attitudes, ideas, processes, and entertainment that express the common assumptions of a society or of groups in that society; can exist as folk, vernacular, or elite culture.
General term describing a religion based on rational deduction from the evidences of nature of the existence and attributes of a supreme deity,
rather than from an authoritative supernatural revelation
Term for the political party begun as the Democratic-Republicans under Jefferson and Madison; sometimes shortened to "Republicans." In the 1820s, when a splinter group of National Republicans developed and split off to become the Whigs, the party became known simply as "Democrats"
and became the vehicle for expressing the political attitudes and culture
symbolized by Andrew Jackson.
A provision in the Constitution designed to de-politicize the presidential election process by having electors in each state cast votes, based on the winner of the most votes in their states, for the president and vice president, with each state having as many votes as its combined number of senators and representatives in Congress.
An intellectual movement born out of the scientific
revolution of the 17th century that fl ourished on both sides of the Atlantic in the 18th century. The movement was characterized by confidence in reason as the means of solving practical, religious, and philosophical problems; an effort to approximate the order of nature; and a commitment to criticism as a means of discovery.
A form of Protestant Christian religious expression growing out of the Great Awakenings of the 18th century; marked by dramatic religious transformation, the location of religious authority in the Bible rather than in reason or in religious authorities, and a disposition to extend moral reform generally across society.
A system in which workers trained in the production of a specific commodity or similar commodities labor for wages, produce individual parts of such commodities for assembly by other workers (rather than each worker producing the entire commodity), and use a common source of artificial power for the production process
An economic system in which an individual, protected by natural and civil rights, is free to seek terms of employment, look for pay in the form of cash wages, and may accumulate sufficient capital through work and savings to acquire property and hire others.
A warship of the last era of wooden fighting ships, of medium size and armament (carrying anywhere from 44 to 56 cannon of varying weight), between a sloop and a ship-of-the-line
A redefi nition of the exacting standards of church
membership originally laid down by New England Puritans, so that those children of church members who had not experienced religious conversion
for themselves could nevertheless be admitted to one of the sacraments, baptism, and brought under church discipline.
An individual who sells rights to a term of service
(usually seven years) in exchange for the costs of passage to America.
Refers to a system of ideas articulated by Thomas Jefferson, John Randolph of Roanoke, and John Taylor of Caroline that promoted agrarianism and states' rights and discouraged concentrations of fiscal and commercial power in governments, cities, institutions, and industries.
An early form of corporate organization, designed
to limit risk and maximize resources by allowing individuals to contribute to a capital fund through the purchase of shares; this system limited losses
to the value of shares bought and permitted sharing of profits through the payment of dividends based on the number of shares
The power of the federal courts to determine the legal standing and/or constitutionality of state or federal legislative actions.
The theory of law; for example, a jurisprudence of
"judicial restraint" would favor minimizing the intervention of judges in legislative matters.
From the French, "let it be as they wish"; an economic attitude springing from Adam Smith that held that governments should exercise as small an active role as possible in a nation's economic activities and decisions.
From the Latin liber, for "free"; a political and economic attitude developed at the end of the 17th century and growing to full stature in the late
18th and early 19th centuries. This view based organization of human societies on (a) the possession of natural rights rather than inherited status; (b) the notion of a "state of nature" in which the unrestrained competition for scarce resources induced people to create civil societies as a "social contract" for the purpose of acquiring and protecting property; and (c) the notion that the
legitimacy of civil societies depended entirely on the securing of natural and civil rights and could be changed if it failed to do so
Phrase coined by Jacksonian journalist John O'Sullivan in 1845 that expressed the belief that the United States was clearly, or "manifestly," destined by divine providence, cultural superiority, or racial
paternalism to extend U.S. sovereignty over the entire North American continent
Originally a literal physical location but, in the 19th century, increasingly an abstract "place" in which sellers of goods and services compete with other sellers for the attention and business of consumers.
The view that national economies constitute resources that the state must manage in order to maximize, through regulation and subsidization,
the survival of the state; especially applicable to the preservation of domestic resources and reserves of gold or silver.
The civilian military forces of each state, who trained for military purposes on indifferent and occasional schedules and were available for active
duty on the call of the state's governor or, in time of war or insurrection, by the president of the United States.
The concept that class, tradition, ethnicity, or religion are no barriers to economic or geographical movement.
The study of practical applications of religious
or philosophical teaching that formed the core of 18th- and 19th-century college curricula.
Fear of, or prejudice against, those not native born in the United States or those retaining loyalty to foreign languages, ethnic identities, or religions.
The doctrine, articulated fi rst in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, then by John Calhoun in the Nullifi cation Crisis, that held that state governments have the power to veto, or nullify, the operation of federal laws within their bounds.
Term used to describe Britain's North American colonies from the view of the royal government. The implication was that the North American colonies were merely settlements with no forms of self-government that the crown was obligated to consult
The vast holdings owned by the federal government in the areas ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Paris or acquired by the
Louisiana Purchase or the Mexican Cession and whose sales were a major source of revenue for the federal government.
A religious protest movement in English Protestantism that identified itself doctrinally with Calvinism, set extremely high moral standards for admission to church membership, and insisted on disentangling the church from state control, even to the point of authorizing individual congregations to manage their own affairs (Congregationalism).
A belief that certain physical marks categorize people into races and that these can be ranked hierarchically in moral, intellectual, or physical
terms that permit members of a "superior" race to stigmatize, oppress, or exploit members of an "inferior" race.
Any form of political organization or ideology that (a) repudiates monarchy, oligarchy, or tyranny; (b) replaces government by self-interest and patronage with public spirit and considerations of merit; (c) lodges political authority in the community as a whole while restricting
legislative, judicial, or executive responsibilities in the state to those enjoying popular endorsement; and (d) may be more or less democratic in
the identifi cation of those who are accorded civil rights, especially the vote. Sometimes distinguished into "classical" republicanism, which stresses public spirit and community, and "liberal" republicanism, which legitimates the pursuit of economic and political self-interest as leading to the greatest good.
A reaction to the rationalism of the Enlightenment that valued community with nature; the power of emotion, passion, or sentiment over reason; a belief that "organic" and nonrational factors governed human behavior; and an individual subjectivity.
Treason, as in the Alien and Sedition Acts
Hard coin, in gold or silver, as opposed to paper money, stock certificates, or credit.
A political doctrine rooted in the view that the states of the Union are its primary political units and have surrendered only limited aspects of sovereignty to the federal government.
The civil right to vote
A tax laid on imported goods to be paid by the importer, often levied as a way of adding to the costs of foreign-produced goods in order to give
competitive advantage to domestically produced goods.
A reform movement beginning in the 1820s that sought to restrict the consumption of hard alcoholic spirits through moral exhortation;
eventually, the movement became interchangeable with the idea of total
abstinence from all fermented liquors and political movements to ban alcohol production and distribution.
Describes the beliefs of a group of New England
Romantic philosophers who sought to "transcend" the Realist epistemology of the dominant "common sense" philosophy by discovering ideas of moral truth and beauty apart from sensation. The transcendentalists espoused reform movements based on communities that identified norms for behavior through mystical delight in nature and the discovery of "authenticity."
A religious movement in 18th- and 19th-century New England Congregationalism that rejected the traditional tenets of Calvinism, in particular, the notion that God existed as three persons in a Trinity (composed of God the Father, Jesus Christ the Son, and the Holy Spirit), in favor of a "rational" reading of the Bible that found only one "person" in God and, therefore, redefined Jesus Christ as a being of a separate and lower order.
From Thomas More's Utopia (as derived from the Greek, eutopia, or "good place"), the quest for a perfectly ordered society in which inequality, crime, poverty, and suffering have been abolished by a readjustment of social relations, either through rational management or strict adherence to religious revelation.
From the Latin for "I prevent," the term is used in article 1, section 9, of the Constitution to describe the power of the president to prevent Congressional legislation from passing into law.
Describes self-organized associations of citizens for specific goals, usually religious, moral, or philanthropic, that the federal government was restricted by the Constitution from publicly pursuing or was given no mandate to pursue.
Originally, in English political history, the "country" party, opposed to the "court" party and absolute monarchy, this became the name of a party described in 1834 by Henry Clay as the new opposition to "King" Andrew Jackson and the Democrats.
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