43 terms

B. F. Skinner

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Arnold Gesell
an early behaviorist, tested over 10,000 children and never lost one of them
Eleanor Gibson
demonstrated depth perception in monocular animals in her visual cliff experiments
Harry Harlow
demonstrated the importance of contact in development
Jacob Kantor's interbehaviorism
was a forerunner to ecological psychology
B.F. Skinner
was a radical behaviorist who invented the Skinner Box, studied operant conditioning and especially schedules of reinforcement
A cumulative recorder
shows the total number of responses as a function of time
Behavior
is anything a dead man can't do
Operants
are emitted and operate on the environment
A consequence
is an event produced by an operant
A functional analysis
is to identify when a behavior (crying) is or is not an operant behavior
A reinforce
is any consequence that strengthens behavior. (I say, stimulus and increase)
A reinforcement
is always a stimulus, quantifiable and measurable
Shaping
is a successive approximation
Acquisition, maintenance, extinction, resistance to extinction, Spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination
must be part of an learning theory.
A negative reinforcement
is the removal of a stimulus followed by an increase in behavior
positive reinforcement
is the the presentation of a stimulus followed by an increase in behavior
Punishment
is the presentation of a negative stimulus. This decreases behavior.
Negative Punishment
includes Time Out, response cost, and overcorrection.
There are _______ basic schedules of reinforcement.
four
comparison
A ________ of classical and operant conditioning is always important.
Beyond Freedom and Dignity
Skinner's book, "______________________" was one of many controversial social commentaries.
Freud
Skinner gave _____ credit for one idea. It was that the causes of behavior are largely unconscious.
error variance
In the experiment analysis of behavior statistics are not used because they believe that there is no such thing as _____________________(2).
Variability of behavior
is a failure in experimental control
Single-subject designs
are a viable alternative to group statistics.
A baseline
is a stable performance level of an operant that we wish to change. It is like a state in psychology.
Group statistics
are done after the experiment, single-subject design are done during the experiment
group mean
In psychology we are trying to change the _____________. The CDC uses group statistics.
Some behaviors are not reversible
so the ABA must be replaced with a multiple baseline design
Skinner and Fred Keller
thought that teaching machines were the answer to education
Another contribution from Skinner was the
idea of token economies (token could be money, cigarettes, etc.)
Breland's book was titled
"The Misbehavior of Organisms" as a pun on Skinner's book "The Behavior of Organisms"
For Noam Chomsky
language is rule-governed by inner mental structures
Begleiter says
that alcoholism is a genetic influenced disease, not a genetic disease like Huntington's Chorea
Terrace's error-less discrimination
does not show the peak shift phenomenon
O.H. Mowrer
a contemporary of Hull, proposed a 2-factor theory of learning, sign learning and solution learning, which we now call classical and operant conditioning
An intervening variable
is a theoretical concept that has a surplus meaning beyond its operational definition is a hypothetical construct. Meehl and MacCorquosdale
A basic assumption of radical behaviorism
is the explanations of behaviors are to be found in external events
The main problem with a mental explanation
is that it requires a return to external events in order to have an adequate account
Thinking, choosing, discrimination, feeling, etc.
are not explanations of behavior but rather are behaviors and are to be explained with the same terms used to overt behaviors
The astronomer
is inconsistent when he says "the sun rises" or "the stars come out" but he uses them in ordinary conversation
Psychology is prone to transfer verbs into nouns and then go hinting for the things denoted by the nouns; what are some examples of this?
memories, thought, and sensation
The mind is not a thing
it is what you do to change your mind to behave differently
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