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29 terms

Anatomy Ch. 14

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intestinal glands
produce an enzyme-poor "juice" containing mucus; found in the submucosa of the small intestine
salivary glands
secretion includes amylase, which begins starch digestion in the mouth
pancreas
ducts a variety of enzymes in an alkaline fluid into the duodenum
liver
produces bile, which is transported to the duodenum via the bile duct
gastric glands
produce hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen
mesentery
structure that suspends the small intestine from the posterior body wall (membrane)
villi
fingerlike extensions of the intestinal mucosa that increase the surface area
Peyer's patches
collections of lymphatic tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine
plicae circulares
folds of the small intestine wall
oral cavity/stomach
two anatomical regions involved in physical breakdown of food
tongue
organ that mixes food in the mouth
pharynx
common passage for food and air
1. lesser omentum 2. greater omentum 3. mesentery
three extensions/modifications of the peritoneum
esophagus
literally a food chute; has no digestive or absorptive role
rugae
folds of the stomach mucosa
haustra
saclike outpocketings of the large intestine wall
microvilli
projections of the plasma membrane of a cell that increase the cell's surface area
ileocecal valve
precents food from moving back into the small intestine once it has entered the large intestine
small intestine
organ responsible for most food and water absorption//organ into which the stomach empties// organ that receives pancreatic juice and bile
large intestine (colon)
organ primarily involved in water absorption and feces formation
vestibule
area between the teeth and lips/cheeks
appendix
blind sac hanging from the initial part of the colon
stomach
organ in which protein digestion begins
lesser omentum
membrane attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach
pyloric sphincter
sphincter, controlling the movement of food from the stomach into the duodenum
soft palate
uvula hangs from its posterior edge
parietal peritoneum
serosa of the abdominal cavity wall
anal canal
region, containing two sphincters, through which feces are expelled from the body
hard palate
anterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity; supported by bone