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American Historical Figures Set 2
Terms in this set (51)
Banks, Nathaniel Prentice (1816-1894)
One of the most prominent Union political generals, he served throughout the Civil War without achieving any distinction on the battlefield. No match for Stonewall Jackson in the Shenandoah Valley in 1862, he similarly came to grief during the 1864 Red River campaign.
Barton, Clara (1821-1912)
The most famous northern nurse, her excellent work at Antietam and elsewhere earned her the nickname "Angel of the Battlefield." Appointed head nurse of Benjamin F. Butler's Army of the James in 1864, she is most famous as the founder of the American Red Cross.
Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant (1818-1893).
One of the ranking officers in the Confederacy, he presided over the bombardment of Fort Sumter in April 1861; led the southern army at the opening of the battle of First Bull Run, or Manassas; and later held various commands in the western and eastern theaters.
Bell, John (1797-1869).
Tennesseean who ran as the presidential candidate
of the Constitutional Union Party in 1860. A former Whig with moderate views, he gave lukewarm support to the Confederacy after Lincoln's call for
75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion.
Booth, John Wilkes (1838-1865)
Member of the most celebrated family of actors in the United States and a staunch southern sympathizer. He first planned to kidnap Abraham Lincoln, subsequently deciding to assassinate
him. He mortally wounded the president on April 14, 1865, and was himself killed shortly thereafter by pursuing Union cavalry.
Bragg, Braxton (1817-1876).
A controversial military figure who led the Confederate Army of Tennessee at Stones River, Chickamauga, and Chattanooga. Intensely unpopular with many of his soldiers and subordinates, he finished the war as an adviser to Jefferson Davis in Richmond.
Breckinridge, John Cabell (1821-1875)
Vice president of the United States under James Buchanan and the southern Democratic candidate for president in 1860, he served the Confederacy as a general and secretary of war. He fought in the eastern and western theaters, winning the battle of New Market in May 1864.
Brown, John (1800-1859).
Abolitionist whose violent activities during the
mid-1850s in Kansas Territory and raid on Harpers Ferry in October 1859 gained him wide notoriety. He was hanged after his capture at Harpers Ferry,
becoming a martyr to many in the North.
Buchanan, James (1791-1868).
Long-time Democratic politician who was
elected president in 1856 and watched helplessly as the nation broke up during the winter of 1860-1861. During the last months of his presidency,
he sought without success to find a way to entice the seceded states back into the Union
Buell, Don Carlos (1818-1898).
Union army commander in the western theater in 1861-1862 who fought at Shiloh and led the northern forces at Perryville. Reluctant to conduct vigorous campaigns against the Confederates,
he was relieved of command in the autumn of 1862.
Burns, Anthony (1834-1862).
Born a slave in Virginia, Burns escaped to Boston in 1854 and soon stood at the center of a famous fugitive slave case. Arrested and held for return to Virginia under the Fugitive Slave Law, he
inspired an outpouring of antislavery sentiment in Boston and elsewhere in the North. Re-enslaved for a time, he eventually was freed, attended Oberlin College, and spent the last part of his life as a Baptist minister in Canada.
Burnside, Ambrose Everett (1824-1881)
Union general best known for commanding the Army of the Potomac at the battle of Fredericksburg in December 1862. His wartime career also included early service along the
North Carolina coast and later action with Grant's army in 1864.
Butler, Benjamin Franklin (1818-1893)
Union general who coined the term "contraband" for runaway slaves in 1861 and commanded the army that approached Richmond by moving up the James River during U. S. Grant's grand offensive of May 1864. A prewar Democrat who supported John C. Breckinridge in 1860, he became a radical Republican during the war.
Cooke, Jay (1821-1905).
A brilliant fi nancier who raised hundreds of
millions of dollars for the Union war effort through the sale of government bonds. Sometimes accused of receiving special treatment from the Lincoln administration, he had powerful defenders who insisted that his actions helped keep northern armies in the field.
Crittenden, John Jordan (1787-1863).
Politician from Kentucky who worked hard to avoid the breakup of the Union in 1860-1861. He proposed reinstating the Missouri Compromise line, called for a national convention to discuss the secession crisis, and later, worked hard to keep Kentucky in the Union.
Davis, Henry Winter (1817-1865).
Maryland politician who won election at various times under the banners of the Whig; American, or Know-Nothing; and Republican parties. As a member of the House of Representatives from
Maryland in 1864, he opposed Lincoln's lenient plans for Reconstruction and cosponsored, with Senator Benjamin F. Wade of Ohio, the Wade-Davis
Bill and the Wade-Davis Manifesto.
Davis, Jefferson (1808-1889).
Colonel during the war with Mexico, secretary
of war under Franklin Pierce, and prominent senator from Mississippi in the 1840s and 1850s, he served as the Confederacy's only president. His
nationalist policies triggered great political debate among Confederates.
Dix, Dorothea Lynde (1802-1887).
An antebellum advocate of improved care for the mentally ill, she served as superintendent of Union army nurses during the war. She rendered solid service, despite a personality that often placed her at odds with both subordinates and superiors.
Douglas, Stephen Arnold (1812-1861)
Prominent senator from Illinois in the 1850s who favored the doctrine of popular sovereignty and ran unsuccessfully as the regular Democratic candidate for president in 1860.
Douglass, Frederick (1817 or 1818-1895).
Born a slave, he escaped to freedom in 1838, became an abolitionist and newspaper editor, and by 1860, was the most prominent African American leader in the United States. He pressed tirelessly to add freedom as a northern war aim.
Early, Jubal Anderson (1816-1894).
Confederate general who compiled a
solid record as an officer in the Army of Northern Virginia. He ended the war a disgraced figure in the Confederacy because of his defeats in the 1864
Shenandoah Valley campaign.
Farragut, David Glasgow (1801-1870).
The most famous Union naval figure of the war, he was promoted to rear admiral in 1862 (the first officer to hold that rank). He led naval forces in successful operations against New Orleans in 1862 and Mobile Bay in 1864.
Frémont, John Charles (1813-1890).
Famous as an antebellum western explorer, he ran as the first Republican candidate for president in 1856 and served as a Union general in Missouri and Virginia during the war. While commanding in Missouri in 1861, he attempted to free the state's slaves by issuing a proclamation that abolitionists applauded but Lincoln ordered him to rescind.
Grant, Ulysses S. (1822-1885).
The most successful Union military commander, serving as general-in-chief for the last fourteen months of the war and twice winning election as president during the postwar years.
Halleck, Henry W. (1815-1872).
An important Union military figure who presided over striking successes in the western theater in 1862, served as general-in-chief of the Union army in 1862-1864, and was demoted to chief of staff when Grant assumed the top military position in March 1864.
Hood, John Bell (1831-1879).
Confederate commander best known for his
unsuccessful defense of Atlanta against William Tecumseh Sherman's army and the disastrous campaign in Tennessee that culminated in the battle of Nashville in mid-December 1864.
Hooker, Joseph (1814-1879).
Union general nicknamed "Fighting Joe"
who commanded the Army of the Potomac at the battle of Chancellorsville. Replaced by George G. Meade during the Gettysburg campaign, he later fought at Chattanooga and in the opening phase of the 1864 Atlanta campaign.
Hunter, David (1802-1886)
A Union general who, as commander along the
South Atlantic coast, tried to free all slaves in his department in May 1862, only to see Lincoln revoke his order. He later led an army in the Shenandoah Valley in 1864
Jackson, Thomas Jonathan (1824-1863)
Nicknamed "Stonewall" and second only to Lee as a popular Confederate hero, he was celebrated for his 1862 Shenandoah Valley campaign and his achievements as Lee's trusted subordinate. He died at the peak of his fame, succumbing to pneumonia after being wounded at the battle of Chancellorsville.
Johnson, Andrew (1808-1875).
A Democratic politician from Tennessee, he was the only U.S. senator from a seceding state who kept his seat after the firing on Fort Sumter. Elected Lincoln's vice president in 1864, he pursued
a lenient Reconstruction program after Lincoln's death, fought bitterly with radical Republicans in Congress, and narrowly avoided removal from office after being impeached in 1868.
Johnston, Albert Sidney (1803-1862).
A prominent antebellum military figure from whom much was expected as a Confederate general. He compiled a mixed record in the western theater before being mortally wounded on April 6, 1862, at the battle of Shiloh.
Johnston, Joseph Eggleston (1807-1891)
A Confederate army commander who served in both Virginia and the western theater. Notoriously prickly about rank and privileges, he feuded with Jefferson Davis and compiled a record demonstrating his preference for defensive over offensive operations.
Lee, Robert Edward (1807-1870).
Southern military officer who commanded the Army of Northern Virginia for most of the war and became the most admired figure in the Confederacy.
Lincoln, Abraham (1809-1865).
Elected in 1860 as the fi rst Republican to
hold the presidency, he provided superior leadership for the northern war effort and was reelected in 1864 before being assassinated at Ford's Theater on the eve of complete Union victory.
McClellan, George Brinton (1826-1885).
One of the most important military figures of the war, he built the Army of the Potomac into a formidable force and led it during the Peninsula campaign, the Seven Days battles, and at Antietam. Often at odds with Lincoln because of his unwillingness to press the enemy, he was relieved of command in November 1862 and later ran as
the Democratic candidate for president in 1864.
McDowell, Irvin (1818-1885).
Military officer who commanded the Union
army at the battle of First Bull Run, or Manassas. The remainder of his wartime career was anticlimactic.
Meade, George Gordon (1815-1872).
Union general who fought in the eastern theater, commanding the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg and throughout the rest of the war. U. S. Grant's presence with the army after April 1864 placed Meade in a difficult position.
Pierce, Franklin (1804-1869).
Democratic politician elected to the presidency in 1852. A "northern man of southern principles," he favored the proslavery side in the heated political debates regarding the extension of slavery into the Kansas Territory in 1854-1856.
Pope, John (1822-1892).
Union general who won several small successes
in the western theater before being transferred to the eastern theater to command the Army of Virginia. His defeat at the battle of Second Bull Run, or Manassas, in August 1862 ended his important service during the war.
Scott, Dred (1795[?]-1858).
Slave who stood at the center of legal
proceedings that culminated in 1857 in the Supreme Court's landmark Dred Scott v. Sanford decision. The Court declared that as an African American, Scott was not a citizen and, therefore, could not institute a suit. The Court held the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional and seemingly opened all federal territories to slavery
Scott, Winfield (1786-1866).
One of the great soldiers in U.S. history, he
performed brilliantly in the war with Mexico and remained the ranking officer in the army at the outbreak of the Civil War. He devised the Anaconda Plan in the spring of 1861, a strategy that anticipated the way the North would win the conflict.
Sheridan, Philip Henry (1831-1888).
Ranked behind only Grant and Sherman as a Union war hero, Sheridan fought in both the western and eastern theaters. His most famous victories came in the 1864 Shenandoah
Valley campaign; at the battle of Five Forks on April 1, 1865; and during the Appomattox campaign.
Sherman, William Tecumseh (1820-1891).
Union military officer who overcame early-war difficulties to become Grant's primary subordinate.
An advocate of "hard" war, he is best known for his capture of Atlanta and "March to the Sea" in 1864.
Stanton, Edwin McMasters (1814-1869).
Politician from Ohio who served as secretary of war under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. Johnson's demand for Stanton's resignation helped trigger impeachment proceedings against the president in early 1868.
Stephens, Alexander Hamilton (1812-1883).
A moderate Democrat from Georgia who supported Stephen A. Douglas in the 1860 presidential campaign and embraced secession reluctantly, he served throughout the war as vice president of the Confederacy. Increasingly at odds with Jefferson Davis over issues related to growing central power, he became an embittered public critic of the president and his policies.
Stevens, Thaddeus (1792-1868).
Radical Republican congressman from Pennsylvania who chaired the House Ways and Means Committee. He favored harsh penalties for slaveholding Confederates and pushed to make
emancipation a major focus of the Union war effort.
Stowe, Harriett Beecher (1811-1896).
Author and reformer from Connecticut whose revulsion at the Fugitive Slave Act prompted her to
publish Uncle Tom's Cabin, a bestselling novel that proved immensely influential in promoting antislavery sentiment in the United States.
Sumner, Charles (1811-1874).
Radical Republican senator from Massachusetts who was caned on the floor of the Senate by Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina after delivering his famous "Crime against Kansas" speech in 1856. During the war, he chaired the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs and consistently pressed for emancipation.
Taney, Roger Brooke (1777-1864).
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1835-1864), he antagonized abolitionists with the Dred Scott decision in 1857. During the war, he sought to curb Abraham Lincoln's power to suspend the writ of habeas corpus, opposed northern conscription, and argued that governmental assaults on civil liberties posed a greater threat to the nation
than secession of the southern states.
Vallandigham, Clement Laird (1820-1871).
Congressman from Ohio and a leading Copperhead who staunchly opposed emancipation and most of the rest of the Republican legislative agenda. Exiled to the Confederacy by Lincoln in 1863, he returned to the United States and helped draft the peace platform at the 1864 Democratic national convention.
Wade, Benjamin Franklin (1800-1878).
Radical Republican senator from Ohio who chaired the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War,
urged Abraham Lincoln to dismiss George B. McClellan, and called for the emancipation of all slaves. In 1864, he co-authored the Wade-Davis
Bill and the Wade-Davis Manifesto that attacked Lincoln's actions relating to Reconstruction.
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