Human Genetics Chapter 9, Siobhan, Lewis 11th Edition
Human Genetics Edition 9 by Ricki Lewis TWU College of Nursing
Terms in this set (70)
a 5-carbon sugar in RNA
5-carbon sugar in DNA
one of two purine nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA; pairs with T
one of two pyrimidine bases in DNA; pairs with A
one of the two purine nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA; pairs with C
one of the two pyrimidine nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA; pairs with G
a sequence of DNA that instructs a cell to produce a particular protein
the building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base, and a 5-carbon sugar
a DNA base with a two-ring structure; adenine and guanine
a DNA base with a single-ring structure; cytosine, thymine, and uracil
the "rails" of a DNA double helix, consisting of alternating deoxyribose and phosphate groups, oriented opposite one another
the head-to-tail position of the entwined chains of the DNA double helix
complementary base pairs
the pairs of DNA bases that hydrogen bond; adenine bonds to thymine and guanine to cytosine
a type of protein around which DNA entwines
a unit of chromatin structure, bead-like structures
DNA and its associated proteins
The route to DNA replication is called ___ because each new DNA double helix conserves half of the original.
locally opened portion of a replicating DNA double helix
an enzyme that adds new bases to replicating DNA and corrects mismatched base pairs
an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of covalent bonds in the sugar-phosphate backbone of a nucleic acid
carbons in the sugar are numbered
The antiparallel nature of the DNA double helix becomes apparent when what are numbered?
Possible DNA replication type with one double helix specifying creation of a second double helix.
DNA replication occurs during what phase of the cell cycle?
What is the enzyme called that attracts complimentary RNA molecules to build a short piece of RNA during DNA replication.
The short piece of RNA called that is built at the start of each segment of DNA to be replicated.
What is the enzyme called that unwinds and hold apart replicating DNA enabling other enzymes to guide the assembly of a new DNA strand?
What stabilizes the separated strands of DNA during replication?
Identification of nuclein
Experiment: Discoverer of an acidic substance that includes nitrogen and phosphorus on dirty bandages
Complimentary base pairing is a part of DNA structure & maintains a symmetrical double helix
Experiment: Determination that DNA contains equal amounts of guanine and cytosine and of adenine and thymine
DNA replication is semi-conservative, not conservative or dispersive
Meselson & Stahl, 1957
Experiment: Density shift experiments
DNA is the hereditary material
Experiment: Discovery that bacteria can transfer a "factor" that transforms a harmless strain into a lethal one.
DNA, not protein, is the hereditary material
Hershey and Chase, 1953
Experiment: Blender experiments that showed that the part of a virus that infects bacteria contains phosphorus, but not sulfur
which chemical is not a part of DNA: nitrogen, ribose, cytosine, phosphate
Okazaki fragments are small pieces of what?
all of these
Structure of DNA - 1 turns to form a helix 2 is symmetrical 3 is antiparallel, 4 pairs purines with pyramidines 5 all of these
Watson and Crick
who used models to deduce the double helical shape of DNA?
Meselson and Stahl
Who performed experiments to show that DNA replication is semi-conservative?
1909, ID'd 5 carbon sugars ribose in 1909, revealed chemical distinction between RNA & DNA, Russian/USA
Discovered A, G, C & T and that A pairs with T and that C pairs with G
x-ray diffraction, A form = dry crystalline, B form=wet as forms of DNA
Photo 51 -- took her 100 hours to obtain, reasoned the helix with symmetrical sub-units
Watson / Crick
cardboard cutouts to solve DNA structure
2008, had DNA sequenced
transferred killing ability btwn types of bacteria -- Type S/R
conversion of Type R to S called what?
1902, English, linked inheritance of inborn errors of metabolism with lack of particular enzymes
Avery, MacLeod, McCarty 1944
Treated lysed S bacteria with protease & DNase
Only DNase prevented transformation
Thurs, DNA is the transforming principle--can convert Type R to S
Hershey & Chase, 1953
American, E. coli infected with virus
grew batches in Sulfur and Phosphorus
blender experiment showed that virus transformed via DNA, not protein, in the bacterial cell
Thus, DNA is the genetic material
unwinds parental double helix
stabilize and separate strands
Adds short primer to template strand
binds nucleotides to form new strands
joins Okazaki fragments and seals other nicks in the S-P backbone
DNA replication occurs during which phase of the cell cycle, prior to cell division?
Site where DNA is locally opened is called what?
DNA replication is what?
Meselson & Stahl, 1957
Demonstrated semi-conservative mechanism of DNA replication with a series of density shift experiments.
Heavy density nitrogen incorporated into one strand of each daughter double helix.
DNA wraps several levels until it is compacted into a?
chromosome substance is called what?
What type of bonds hold base pairs together?
the double helix
2 polynucleotide chains align to form what?
the opposing orientation (head to toe) is called what?
--nucleotides joined in chains
--phosphodiester bonds form between deoxyribose sugars and phosphates and creates what?
section of DNA material is called what?
--nitrogenous base--one of 4 types
nucleotide is comprised of what?
the activity of the protein imparts what?
1. from the diet or
2. breaking down proteins in the cell
3. body synthesizes other
most of the amino acids that are assembled into proteins come from what three sources?
thousand DNA bases
million DNA bases
nucleotides are joined into long chains with what type of bonds?
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
MCAT Biochemistry | Kaplan Guide
Genetics Chapter 9
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Chp 10 Air Quality
Environmental Health Ch.4
HSC 352 Practice Exam
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 10 Gene Action: From DNA to Protein
Chapter 10: Gene Action: From DNA to Protein
Lewis: Human Genetics Ch. 10
Genetics Ch 9 - DNA (quiz 11/4)