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138 terms

Bio Final

1. Relatively small organic molecules with a central carbon atom which is bonded to a carboxyl group, an amino group, a carbon containing group, and a hydrogen atom are called
amino acids
2. Macromolecules that are used by organisms to store hereditary information are called
dna molecules
3. Carbohydrates are polymers formed of structural units called
4. Macromolecule lipids are characteristically
water insoluable
5. Biological membranes contain bilayers of
6. The specific amino acid sequence in a protein is its
primary structure
7. A five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, an organic nitrogen containing base, and phosphodiester bonds are components of
nucleic acids.
8. The nitrogen base not found in DNA is called
9. Proteins can become denatured or loose form and function when affected by
heat, pH, and ionic concentrations.
10. characterized by being solid at room temperature, having only single bonds, and are typically from animal products. Unsaturated fats' double bonds can be removed through hydrogenation.
Saturated fats
11. have a carboxyl end and an amino end.
12. Making and breaking molecules in the body require the aid of ... to help the reactions proceed.
13. Glycogen is to animal cells as... is to plant cells.
14. is described by all living organisms being composed of one or more cells, cells are the smallest unit of living organisms, and new cells form from pre-existing cells by cell division.
Cell theory
15. Prokaryotes lack a .
true nucleus
16. mitochondria function in
ATP synthesis
21. The... of the plasma membrane are in large part responsible for the cell's ability to interact with its environment through their roles as channels, and as recognition, reception, and transport structures.
22. Some ribosomes are embedded into
rough er
23. are not very soluble in water, because they possess long stretches of non-polar amino acids that are hydrophobic.
Membrane proteins
24. On the outer surface of the plasma membrane there are ... molecules that identify the cell-type.
carbohydrate chain marker
25. The part of a membrane protein that extends through the phospholipid bilayer is primarily composed of... that are non-polar.
amino acids
26. is the movement of substances to regions of lower concentration.
27. is specific and passive, and which becomes saturated if all of the protein carriers are in use.
Facilitated diffusion
28. In a single sodium-potassium pump cycle, ATP is used up with the result that ...ions leave and ... ions enter.
3 NA leave 2 K enter
29. For the process of to occur, molecules must move from areas of high concentration to areas of lesser concentration until an equilibrium is reached.
30. Labeling something as ... indicates it has more solute therefore less water than the compared system.... indicates less solute therefore more water than the compared system. Isotonic indicates equal solute therefore equal water.
31. The release of insulin from pancreatic cells occurs by
32. Reactions that occur spontaneously and release free energy are called
exergonic reactions
33. The organic non-protein components that aid in enzyme functioning are called
34. When an atom or molecule gains one or more electrons, it is said to be
35. As energy is being reconverted through the many forms, it is continuously lost as
36.are very specific in their choices of substrates because each different enzyme has an active site that is shaped to fit a certain substrate molecule.
37. At the conclusion of an enzyme catalyzed reaction, the enzyme frees itself from the... and is ready to be reused.
38. The feedback inhibition regulation of simple biochemical pathways often involves the end-product binding to the ... site of the first enzyme in the sequence.
39. The... Law of Thermodynamics simply states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, just changed from one form to another.
40. inhibitor enzyme inhibition involves competition for substrate binding sites on the enzyme.
41. energy is the amount of energy required for a reaction to move forward.
42. In..., the glycolytic reactions take place in the cytoplasm of the cell.
43. In the absence of oxygen, hydrogen atoms generated by glycolysis are donated to organic molecules in a process called .
44. The end-product of glycolysis is .
45. The ...of pyruvate produces NADH, acetyl-CoA, and CO2.
46. A single ... molecule can drive the Krebs cycle two turnes.
47. The... electron carriers produced in the Krebs cycle are FADH2 and NADH.
48. The oxygen utilized in cellular respiration finally shows up as .
49. The energy released in the mitochondrial electron transport chain is used to transport ... into the inter-membrane space of mitochondria.
50. The process of adding energy to convert ADP to ATP is an example of .
51. The energy in NADH is transferred to ATP by first producing a .
proton gradient
52. The purpose of the ... pathways is to regenerate NAD+ for glycolysis.
53. The equation, C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O (ATP + Heat), describes.
cell respiration
54. DNA consists of two antiparallel strands of nucleotide chains held together by .
hydrogen bonds
55. The method of DNA replication, where each original strand is used as a template to build a new strand, is called the method.
56. The enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of new DNA molecules is called .
DNA polymerase III
57. The lagging strand is replicated with stretches of Okazaki fragments and that is why its synthesis is considered to be .
58. The site of the opening of the DNA strands where active replication occurs is referred to as the .
replication fork
59. Eukaryotic organisms solve the problem of time constraints on replication of DNA by using multiple origins of the replication on each chromosome, which results in .
multiple replicons
60. The enzyme DNA pol I removes the primers used for .
DNA replication
61. In DNA adenine-thymine pairs have 2 hydrogen bonds between them while guanine-cytosine pairs have .. between them.
62. An organism's ... material must be dynamic, changing rapidly in response to changes in the environment.
63. If a eukaryotic cell has a single set of chromosomes, it is called.
64. The... exist as a single, circular, uncoated, double stranded DNA molecule.
bacterial genome
65. The two copies of each chromosome in body cells are called .
homologous chromosomes
66. The first stage of mitosis, when the chromosomes become visibly shorter and thicker is .
67. The proteins that participate in the functioning of the checkpoints for cell cycle control are ... and ...-dependent kinases.
68. If a cell has 32 chromosomes prior to S and undergoes mitosis followed by cytokinesis, each new daughter cell will have ... chromosomes.
70. The pairing of chromosomes along their lengths which is essential for crossing over is referred to as ...
71. The cell produced by the fusion of an egg and a sperm is the .
72. In animals, the ... cells will eventually undergo meiosis to produce gametes are set aside early in the development.
73. Between the two divisions of meiosis there is no ... phase.
74. The synaptonemal complex, which develops early in meiosis, is a lattice of proteins that holds .. together
75. In a sexually reproducing organism the process of mitosis produces new body cells while meiosis produces .
76. ...s, held together at the centromere by kinetochore proteins and formed during the S phase of the cell cycle, consist of two identical copies of a single homologue and double the amount of DNA in a cell. ... separate during anaphase of meiosis II.
Sister chromatid
78. Both DNA and RNA are made up of building blocks known as .
79. Ribosomes are the polypeptide-making organelles residing in the cytoplasm and are large protein aggregates to which... is associated.
80. The process in which an RNA polymerase molecule assembles an mRNA molecule whose nucleotide sequence is complementary to the DNA sequence is called .
81. pairs with adenine in RNA.
82. The nucleotide sequence of a mRNA codon is composed of ... bases.
83. The sites A, P, and E are progressively occupied by amino acids being assembled into a chain in ... and are part of the large ribosomal subunit.
protein synthesis
84. The enzyme that initiates transcription is
RNA polymerase
85. The... of biology is stated as DNA --> RNA --> proteins.
Central Dogma
86. Transfer RNA and ribosomal RNAare products of ... genes, and are therefore never translated.
87. Ribosomes, translation factors, tRNA, and mRNA are components of the ... machinery.
88. ... provides the energy for translation.
89. When the two haploid gametes contain two different alleles of a given gene, the resulting offspring is called .
90. The concept that offspring can inherit the acquired skills of their parents is called blending inheritance or ... hypothesis.
91.... involves the mating of two different true-breeding parents to produce a heterozygous hybrid.
92. ... results allows one to determine the genotype of a dominant phenotype individual. The appearance of any recessive phenotypes in the offspring means the unknown parent was heterozygous.
93. An organism that is heterozygous for two traits can produce a maximum of ... different gametes for these traits.
94. When a single-gene mutation can have phenotypic effects at multiple stages of development, it is .
95. A person with blood type O can donate blood to people of ... blood type.
96.... varies the shape of the beaks among Darwin's finches in response to the available food supply.
Natural selection
97. Domestication of dogs has led to a variety of .
98. The shape of the beaks of Darwin's finches, industrial melanism, and sickle-cell disease are often cited as examples of the process of ... leading to evolutionary change.
natural selection
99. The molecular record suggests that a series of evolutionary changes is tied to a progressive accumulation of alterations of .
DNA sequences
101. The evolution of different forms in the same lineage when exposed to different selective pressures is called .
102. ... Structures are structures of animals that have difference appearances and functions but seem to have evolved from the same body part in a common ancestor.
103. The side toes of a horse, the pelvis of the whale, and the human appendix are all examples of ... structures.
104. ... refers to molecular changes in genetic material that lead to phenotypic changes.
Molecular evolution
105. An important message from the work of Thomas ... that influenced Charles Darwin was only a fraction of any population will survive and reproduce.
106. Species are said to be... if they are naturally found only in a particular location.
107. The genes encoding the blood proteins myoglobin and hemoglobin are derived from a common gene ancestor. These proteins both occur in humans. Therefore, these genes are .
108. Features that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction by an organism in a particular environment are called .
109. The ... principle explains how rare alleles may become more common in new populations.
110. The Hardy-Weinberg equations only hold true, that is, a population is only in equilibrium when ... of the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions are met.
111. In ..., over time the population is strongly selected for in two directions (e.g., larger beak size and smaller beak size).
disruptive selection
112. ... would be expected to produce the smallest evolutionary change in a given period of time in a population of birds.
113. All the members of a single species that occupy a particular area at the same time are known as a .
114. Two groups of organisms that differ from one another in one or more characteristics and do not hybridize extensively if they occur together in nature are considered to be .. species.
115. ... promotes speciation by strengthening isolating mechanisms, restricting gene flow, and character displacement.
Natural selection
116. To ensure that individuals .. with their own species a variety of communication cues have evolved such as vocalizations, pheromones, and visual signals such as body colors and rituals.
117. Many species might coexist in a particular environment by occupying different areas called .
118. ... mechanisms lead to reproductive isolation by preventing the formation of hybrid zygotes.
119. ... is best described as the existence of groups of closely related species recently evolved from a common ancestor.
Adaptive radiation
120. The five major mass... were caused mainly by geological events and, perhaps, collision with asteroids, but by definition, in mass extinctions all major groups are affected unequally.
121. Under the... species concept, species are identified based on a unique combination of physical or molecular characteristics.
122. A disadvantage of the phylogenetic species concept is that it may be difficult to determine the number of traits necessary to ... individuals.
123. In the ... species concept, the most common way for researchers to establish a lineage is to examine DNA sequences of particular genes.
124. The ... species concept distinguishes species that are different from each other based on their use of resources.
125. Species evolve relatively quickly then exist essentially unchanged for most of their existence according to the concept of ... equilibrium.
126. Characteristics between the branch points of a cladogram that are shared by all organisms above the branch point and are not present in any below it are called .
derived characters
127. Characteristics that have arisen in organisms as a result of common evolutionary descent are said to be.
ancestral characteristics
128. The evolutionary sequence in the development of a complex derived character shared by clade members can be best analyzed through .
130. ... can result from both convergent evolution and evolutionary reversals.
131. A group is considered... if all members of the group share a common ancestor that is included in the group.
132. The field of biology concerned with classifying organisms and viruses is .
133. Eukarya, Archea, and Bacteria are .
134. Phylum, class, and order are taxa in correct hierarchical order from
left to right.
135. In a cladogram, taxa are placed at the..., not at the branch points, of the phylogenetic tree.
136. In a ..., Shared, derived characteristics common to taxa above the branch point are put at the branch points.
137. In choosing among possible ... phylogenetic trees, the principle of parsimony states that you should choose the tree that is simplest.
double bonds can be removed through hydrogenation.
Unsaturated fats
smooth endoplasmic reticulum has a role in
participate in protein synthesis
cytoskeletons are made up of
contain hydrolytic enzymes that allow for intercellular digestion of substances
the nucleus is part of
DNA replication
the cell membrane is the
lipid bilayer
performs modification, processing, and sorting of macromolecules.
Water moves into that which is..., moves out of that which is hypotonic. There is no net movement in an isotonic relationship.