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Terms in this set (90)
Comes from word philosophia
The term Philosopher was first used by Pythagoras
A philosopher knows the truth for a real situation
Concerned with non physical needs; better human relationships,
spiritual life and deeper understanding of our place and purpose in life.
Believed that our reason will show us that certain truths are universal
A group of intellectuals who taught oratory for a fee
Believed that all truths are relative and that all truths are determined by or based on human interests
Traits of a wise man
● One who is aware of what he knows and what he does not know
● Holds beliefs that are not only true but which he/she can also justify
● Knows a lot about things that are valuable in life
● Has the ability to put knowledge into practice
● Knows what should be done and acts accordingly
Can be answered by science, facts or data
Cannot be simply answered by known information.
Doesn't stop at a certain result, a continuous process. Always searches for new and better solutions
Examines and analyzes the assumptions of our
frameworks or perspective of things
Leads us to the formulation of new and better frameworks or perspectives
➔ Topic of the issues
➔ Ex. Epistemology, Metaphysics, Logic
➔ Depends on solution being proposed
➔ Ex. Materialism, Dualism, Platonism
➔ Methods used to resolve a certain issue
➔ Ex. Feminism, Marxism, Phenomenology
➔ Geographical location
➔ Ex. Spain, Philippines, Mexico
➔ Historical period in which they occur
➔ Ex. Ancient, Modern, Contemporary
The Charge of Futility
● Philosophy is not important because it's INDEFINITE and IMPRACTICAL
● Philosophy does not provide final answers to the questions that it
deals with making it indefinite
● Philosophy has no practical benefits that help us like material things
making it impractical.
● Provides a holistic view of life
● Development of other disciplines
● Provides ethical guidelines for the use of technology
● Social Transformation
● Expands the boundaries of knowledge
The Material Cause
The Formal Cause
The Efficient Cause
The Final Cause
The Material Cause
Refers to the composition of something, what a thing is made up of.
The Formal Cause
Refers to the design of something that makes it what it is
The Efficient Cause
Refers to the one that initiates the change in an object
The Final Cause
Refers to the purpose of something
Socrate's Triple Filter Test
The Filter of Truthfulness
"Are you certain that what you're saying is true?"
The Filter of Goodness
"Is the message of the statement going to hurt anyone?"
The Filter of Usefulness
"Is this statement going to benefit me?"
School of Thought
happiness, ethical decisions
knowledge is virtue
evidence, sense, proof
pleasure over virtue, life
Being free of choices
➔ A proposition, make claims, expressions of belief
➔ mental expressions of claims, made in mind, more basic than statements.
NOT BEARERS OF TRUTH
➔ Established by means of sense of experience
➔ Established by means of reason
(after relevant experience)
(before any relevant experience)
➔ Extends our knowledge
➔ Does not extend our knowledge, information is already in predicate.
➔ Not true at all possible situations
➔ ALWAYS TRUE
➔ Can be known by the person who has the belief or makes the statement considered is true
➔ Can be known by everyone.
➔ Depends on the attitudes, preferences of a person, or a group of
➔ True for all regardless of their attitudes or preference.
➔ Acknowledged by everyone
➔ Acknowledge by SOME people.
➔ Deductive reasoning
➔ Inductive reasoning
● Topic or content of a belief or statement that is held to be true
➔ Represent or corresponds the truth
➔ Coheres with the rules of the relevant system
➔ Examining the consequences of holding or accepting the statement to be true
➔ Correctly represents fact in the world observed
➔ Means of reasoning, process with test of coherence/inference
➔ Direct grasp of truth without observation or reasoning
➔ Knowing what cannot be known like religious/spiritual using the usual methods of observation by our sense organ and reasoning
Appeal to Authority
➔ Information provided by an appropriate expert and reliable documents among others
Reasoning a.k.a. Argument
● Goal is to prove the truth of the conclusion
● Process of justifying truth of statement with the truth of another statement
● Composed of one or more premises and a conclusion
➔ Uses facts,rules,definitions,or properties to arrive at a conclusion
➔ Uses patterns to arrive at a conclusion.
● Committed when several meanings of a word or
phrase become confused in the context of one
● Ex; "All laws should be respected and obeyed.
The Law of Gravity is a law. Therefore, the law
of gravity should be respected and obeyed."
● One reasons from the qualities of the parts of a
whole to the qualities of the whole itself.
● Ex; "Every part of this machine is light in
weight. Therefore, the whole machine is light in
The Allegory of the Cave
A theory put forward by Plato, concerning
human perception. Plato claimed that knowledge gained through the
senses is no more than opinion and that, in order to have real knowledge,
we must gain it through philosophical reasoning
Focuses on kinds of substances and capacities
2 General Kinds of Approaches
Focuses on kind of life
Unspirited Body View
Person is just their body; there is no soul.
Disembodied Spirit view
Our bodies are just a shell for our soul
Embodied Spirit view
Both our bodies and our souls are intertwined and essential.
State of awareness from awake to sleep
The particular way that we become conscious of our own mental states
Property of mental states to have contents, or to be directed at some objects of affairs in the world.
Mental states exist only as person has or
Mental states are only directly knowable to the person who has them
● Capacity to make choices and perform actions that are not determined.
● Capacity to freely satisfy wants and desires or to do so without constraints
● Knowledge of the moral rightness or wrongfulness of an act
● Absence of the two incriminating condition.
● Intention to perform the act
● Ignorance of the moral rightness or wrongfulness of an act
● Absence of the intentions to perform the act
● Has the intention of doing the action and performs the action to carry out the intention
● The person knows or is capable of knowing that the action he or she is thinking of performing is right or wrong.
➔ Lessen the accountability
➔ Increase the accountability
Intensity of injury
➔ The greater is the degree of injury, the greater the degree of accountability v.v.
Degree one's involvement
➔ The greater is the degree of involvement, the greater is the degree of accountability
Degree of one's knowledge of the wrongfulness of an action and relevant facts
➔ The more knowledgeable one is about the wrongfulness of an action and relevant facts, the more accountable one is
Degree of Difficulty/Pressure
➔ The greater is the degree of difficulty/pressure, the greater the degree of accountability
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