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The Acidic Environment
Terms in this set (22)
HCl- strong acid, essential for enzyme function
Ethanoic (Acetic) Acid (CH3COOH)- found in vinegar
Citric Acid- used as a food additive
Ascorbic Acid- Vitamin C
Ammonia (NH3)- Present in the waste products of animals, sharp odour, an important component of fertiliser, used as a cleaning agent.
Amines- weak bases
Metallic oxides and Hydroxides- found in natural environment
Metal Carbonates- naturally occurring minerals
Everyday uses of indicators
used in testing soil, the acidity of pools, in water waste monitoring and in testing water in aquariums.
Acidic non-metal oxides
CO2 dissolves in H2O to form carbonic acid- CO2(g)+ H2O(l) → H2CO3 (aq)
SO2 dissolves in H2O to form sulfurous acid- SO2(g)+H2O(l) → H2SO3(aq)
Oxides of elements close to border of metals and non-metals are ___________ (both acidic and basic properties)
Non-Metallic oxides are mostly ______
Metal oxides mostly _____
Moving down a group the more _____ the oxide becomes
Left to right on periodic table
basic → atmospheric → acidic oxides
Groups III to VI, trend down the group is 1.______ → atmospheric →2. _____
1. acidic 2. basic
Le Chatelier's Principle
"If any change is made to an equilibrium system, the system in turn will alter in a way to counteract or minimise that change"
where forward and reverse reactions are occurring at equal and opposite rates
State of equilibrium
is a point reached when the production of products equals that of the reactants
Factors affecting equilibrium- Concentration
an increase in either products or reactants, eq will favour the opposing side
Decrease in either products or reactants, eq will favour the side that has been decreased
Factors affecting equilibrium- Temperature
Endothermic reaction heat is a reactant. An increase in temp eq will shift in favour of products to remove this heat and produce more products.
In an exothermic reaction heat is a product. When there is an increase in temp eq will shift in favour of reactants to try and remove the added heat.
Factors affecting equilibrium- Gas pressure/Volume
When pressure is increased in an eq reaction involving gases, volume decreases (vice-versa)
Increase in pressure leads to a shift towards side with fewer moles of gaseous substance
Decrease in pressure leads to a shift towards side with more moles of gaseous substance
Factors affecting equilibrium- catalysts
Increase the rates of both fwd and reverse reactions equally.
Carbon Dioxide Solubility- Equation
CO₂(g)+ H₂O(l) → H₂CO₃(aq) ∆H= -50kj (exo)
Carbon Dioxide Solubility- Concentration
If [CO₂] is increased eq will move in favour of products to remove the added CO₂
If [CO₂] is decreased eq will move in favour of reactants to add more CO₂ into the system
Carbon Dioxide Solubility- Temperature
Reaction is exothermic which means heat is a product
Increase in temp on system, will increase temp of products as heat is a product, to counteract this the eq will move in favour of the reactants.
A decrease in temp on system, will increase temp of reactants as heat is a reactant, to counteract this the eq will move in favour of the products
Carbon Dioxide Solubility- Pressure
An increase in pressure will favour the side with fewer gaseous moles
A decrease will favour the side with more gaseous mole
Carbon Dioxide Solubility- Addition of acids/bases
Acid added [H+] will increase, eq will shift in favour of the reactants, removing the added H+
Base added [OH-] will react with the H+ (removing it from the system), eq will favour the fwd reaction as it replaces the removed H+ ions.
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