351 terms

2017-2018 Final Exam Word List

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abdominopelvic cavity
the cavity between the diaphragm and the lower portion of the trunk of the body
acid
a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution; a proton (H+) donor
actin
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. the action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged ions (Na+ and K+) in and out of channels in the axon's membrane
active vitamin D
hormone that stimulates calcium uptake in intestines; activated by the kidney
ADH
Hormone released from the posterior pituitary. causes water reabsorption in the collecting ducts of kidneys; also called vasopressin
adipose tissue
fat tissue
adrenaline
a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (also called epinephrine)
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex into releasing glucocorticoids
afferent nerves
carry messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerves)
agglutination
a clumping of bacteria or red cells when held together by antibodies (Ig M)
alpha cells of pancreas
cells of islets of Langerhans that release glucagon, which increases blood glucose levels
alveoli
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the diffusion of gases between air (external environment) and blood; site of external respiration
amino acids
organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups; monomers (building blocks) of proteins
amphiarthrotic joint
joint that is slightly movable
amylase
enzyme in saliva (and pancreatic juice) that breaks the chemical bonds in starches
anatomical position
erect, feet forward, arms at side with palms facing forward, head facing forward
anatomy
the study of body structure
androgens
male sex hormones
angiotensin
A normal blood protein produced by the liver, angiotensinogen is converted to angiotensim II by renin; result in an increase in blood pressure.
antibody classes
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
appendix
small pouch, which has no function in digestion, attached to the cecum; vestigial structure
arachnoid mater
delicate web-like layer of the meninges; middle layer
areolar tissue
fibrous connective tissue with the fibers arranged in a mesh or net
arteries
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
arterioles
small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
atomic mass
the mass (in atomic mass units) of an isotope of an element
auditory tube
either of the paired tubes connecting the middle ears to the nasopharynx; also called the pharyngotympanic tube
auricle
external ear; the pinna
AV bundle
fibers in the heart that relay a nerve impulse from the AV node to the ventricles; also known as the bundle of His
AV node
picks up electrical impulse from the SA node and causes ventricles to contract; delay signal 0.1 sec.
axon terminal
the endpoint of a neuron where neurotransmitters are stored
axons
a part of a neuron that carries impulses away from the cell body
base
removes H+ ions from a solution when reacting with an acid to form a salt and water; add OH- to solutions; a proton (H+) acceptor
basophils
type of white blood cells that enter damaged tissues and enhance the inflammation process and contain histamine and heparin; least common
beta cells of pancreas
cells of the islets of Langerhans that secrete insulin that lowers blood glucose levels
bicarbonate
a salt of carbonic acid (containing the anion HCO3-); acts as a weak base; main way CO2 is transported in blood and an important blood buffer
bicuspid valve
between left atrium and ventricle; also called the mitral valve
bile
a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; involved in emulsification of fats
blastocyst
the blastula of mammals; hollow ball of cells with a mass of cells at one end
blood cell antigens
Blood types are the result of the presence or absence of antigens (molecules) on the surface of the individual's red blood cells; these fall into two groups, ABO blood type and the RH Factor
blood pH
pH range of 7.35 - 7.45
brain stem
the part of the brain continuous with the spinal cord and comprising the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain
brush border enzymes
enzymes in microvilli within the small intestine which complete digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids
bulbourethral gland
Secretes a clear mucus before ejaculation that neutralizes acidic urine remaining in the urethra; also called the cowper's gland
Ca2+
calcium ion; important in muscle and neuron physiology
calcaneus
the largest tarsal bone; heel bone
calcitonin
thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone; stimulates osteoblasts
canaliculli
Tiny canals housing osteocyte processes to neighboring osteocytes and to the Haversian canal. Allows distal osteocytes to access nutrients, etc.
capillaries
tiny vessels that join arterioles and venues; site of exchange between the body's cells and blood
carbohydrates
Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1.
carbonic acid
a weak acid that forms when water mixes with carbon dioxide; carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme speeds up this reaction
cardiac muscle tissue
occurs only in the heart, where it constitutes the bulk of the heart walls; striated; not voluntary; myocardium
cardioesophageal sphincter
muscular opening between the esophagus and stomach
cartilaginous joint
joint where cartilage connects two bones; usually amphiarthroses
cecum
blind sac at the beginning of the large intestine and into which the ileum opens
cell cycle phases
interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis.
cell membrane
phospholipid barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
central nervous system
the portion of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
cerebellum
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
cerebral aqueduct
a canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles of the brain; passageway for cerebral spinal fluid
chemotaxis
movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus
chordae tendineae
"heart strings" are tiny white collagenic cords that anchor the cusps to the ventricular walls; originate from the papillary muscles.
choroid layer
middle layer of tissue containing blood vessels that nourish the retina and absorbs light within the eye
cilia
short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid over the cell's surface; anchored by basal bodies
coagulation
process of blood clotting; hemostasis
cochlea
the snail-shaped tube (in the inner ear coiled around the modiolus) where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the Organ of Corti
collecting duct
the location in the kidney where processed filtrate, called urine, is collected from the renal tubules
colon
the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum
connective tissue
tissue that holds organs in place and binds different parts of the body together; known for cells embedded within a matrix
cornea
transparent anterior portion of the outer covering of the eye
corpus callosum
a broad transverse nerve tract connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
corpus luteum
ovarian structure that forms from a follicle after ovulation; secretes progesterone and estrogen
cortisol
secreted from the adrenal cortex, aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels and suppressing immune system function; glucocorticoid
covalent bonds
form when electrons are shared between atoms; polar and nonpolar
creatine phosphate
An energy storage molecule used by muscle tissue; phosphate from creatine phosphate can be removed and attached to an ADP to generate ATP quickly
cutaneous membrane
the skin, composed of stratified squamous epithelium (keratinized) and dense connective tissue; only dry membrane
cytoplasm
the region of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus
dendrites
the branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
desmosomes
points in which two cells are fastened together into strong sheets; intermediate filaments; anchoring junctions.
diapedesis
passage of blood cells (especially white blood cells) through intact capillary walls and into the surrounding tissue
diencephalon
located between the midbrain and the cerebrum and consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
diploid cell
a cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
disaccharides
carbohydrates made up of two monosaccharides; maltose, sucrose, lactose are major examples
distal convoluted tubule
between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct; Selective reabsorption and secretion occur; reabsorption of water and sodium
DNA base pairing rules
A to T, G to C, T's are replaced by U's in RNA
DNA replication
the process of making a copy of DNA; S portion of interphase of the cell cycle
dorsal cavity
contains the cranial cavity and spinal cavity
ductus deferens
a duct that carries spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct; also called the vas deferens
duodenum
the part of the small intestine between the stomach and the jejunum; site of most digestion
dura mater
tough, thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord
dynamic equilibrium
A condition that is stable within certain levels
ear ossicles
malleus, incus, stapes
eccrine glands
glands that produce sweat; found over most of the body
efferent nerves
carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerves
electrons
negatively charged particles found outside the nucleus
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
endocytosis
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
endometrium
inner lining of the uterus; site of implantation of the blastocyst
enzymes
proteins that act as biological catalysts
eosinophils
destroy parasitic organisms and play a major role in allergic reactions
epidermis
the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates; stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum
epididymis
structure in the male reproductive system in which sperm fully mature and are stored
epiglottis
a flap of elastic cartilage that covers the opening (glottis) of the trachea while swallowing
epinephrine
a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (also called adrenalin)
epiphyseal plate
cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton
epithelial tissue
membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body; cells are tightly packed together
erythropoietin (EPO)
hormone secreted by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell formation in red bone marrow
esophagus
the passage between the pharynx and the stomach; no digestive role
estrogen
hormone produced by the ovaries; promotes female secondary sex characteristics
exocytosis
the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out
expiratory reserve volume
amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation
facilitated diffusion
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
fascicle
a discrete bundle of muscle cells or nerve fibers
fats
nutrient that stores energy, cushions organs
fertilization
the physical union of male and female gametes
fever
a rise in the temperature of the body
fibrous joint
a joint held together by fibrous connective tissue; usually an immovable joint; sutures
fibrous tunic of eye
sclera, cornea
formed elements of blood
red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes)
fourth ventricle of brain
the choroid plexus is located within this brain ventricle, found regionally under the cerebellum
fovea centralis
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute; greatest visual acuity
FSH
a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary and stimulates growth of Graafian follicles in females, and activates sperm-forming cells in male mammals
gallbladder
the organ that stores bile after it is produced by the liver
gap junctions
points that provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to another with special membrane proteins; called communicating junctions.
gastrin
hormone produced in the stomach wall that stimulates sustained secretion of gastric juice
glomerulus
small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron; where the filtration of blood takes place
glottis
opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
glucagon
antagonist of insulin; increases blood glucose levels
glucocorticoids
Cortisol and Cortisone; produced in the adrenal cortex and increases blood glucose levels
Golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
gout
inflammation of joints due to the deposit of uric acid crystals
Graafian follicle
large, mature, ovarian follicel with a well-developed antrum and a secondary oocyte; ovulation of the oocyte occurs from this type of follicle
growth hormone
hormone released by the anterior pituitary that targets all cells in the body, particularly bone and muscle cells
haploid cell
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n); gametes in humans
Haversian canals
vertical channels in bone which contain the bone's blood vessels
HCl
hydrochloric acid; stomach acid
hematopoiesis
the formation of blood cells in the red bone marrow; stimulated by EPO
homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment; usually maintained through negative feedback mechanisms
human chorionic gonadotropin
hormone produced early in pregnancy by the placenta and embryo
hydrogen bonds
very weak bonds; occurs when a hydrogen atom in one molecule is attracted to the electrostatic atom in another molecule
hydrostatic pressure
Pressure exerted by a volume of fluid against a wall, membrane, or some other structure that encloses the fluid.
hypertonic
(of a solution) having a higher osmotic pressure (more solutes) than a comparison solution
hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
hypotonic
(of a solution) having a lower osmotic pressure (low solutes) than a comparison solution
ileocecal valve
valve between the ileum of the small intestine and the cecum of the large intestine
incus
the ossicle between the malleus and the stapes; anvil
inflammatory response
nonspecific defense against infection, characterized by redness, heat, swelling, and pain
inspiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation
insulin
hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; lowers blood glucose
interatrial septum
partition between the right and left atria
interferon
an antiviral protein produced by cells that have been invaded by a virus
interstitial cells of testis
cells that lie between the seminiferous tubules and produce the hormone testosterone; also called leydig cells
interstitial fluid
liquid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body; body's internal environment; ECF (extracellular fluid)
interventricular septum
partition between right and left ventricle
ionic bonds
formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another; results in the formation of ions
iris
muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil; intrinsic muscle
irritability
ability to respond to stimuli
isotonic
two solutions having the same or equal osmotic pressure
isotope
one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
keratin
tough, fibrous, waterproof protein found in skin; produced by keratinocytes
lacunae
small spaces between the lamellae which contain osteocytes
lamellae
concentric layers around haversian canal where bone matrix is deposited
larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
lateral ventricles of brain
ventricles found in each cerebral hemisphere
left atrium
the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins
left ventricle
the chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta
leukocytes
white blood cells
levels of organization in the body
atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
LH
Luteinizing hormone, ovulation and egg release, maturation of egg, release of testosterone in males.
lipid bilayer
structure of membrane, two sheets of lipid molcules with tails pointed inward, proteins embedded in bilayer (serve as channels) along with carbohydrate molecules (id markers - recognition)
lipids
energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
liver
large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity; production of many plasma proteins, bile, and glycogen
loop of Henle
section of the nephron tubule that conserves water and minimizes the volume of urine; countercurrent exchange with vasa recta
lymph
the fluid that the lymphatic system collects and returns to the bloodstream
lymphocytes
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
malleus
the ossicle attached to the eardrum; also called the hammer
mediastinum
the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus
medulla oblongata
lowest section of the brain stem; contains centers that control several visceral functions, including breathing, heart and blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, and digestion.
melanin
the protective skin pigment responsible for the tan, brown, or black color of human skin; produced in abundance upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation; produced by melanocytes
melatonin
hormone released by the pineal gland in response to daily cycles of light and dark; circadian rhythms
metacarpals
bone of the hand between the wrist and each finger
metatarsals
bones of the foot between ankle and toes
microvilli
projections of the cell membrane that increase the cell's surface area; small intestine, proximal convoluted tubule
midbrain
most superior portion of the brainstem
mineralocorticoids
one of the major groups of steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex; regulates water and electrolyte balance in extracellular flid, mainly by regulatind sodium reabsorption by the kidney tubule; aldosterone.
monocytes
an agranular leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage; antigen presenting cell
monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, galactose; C6H12O6
morula
a solid mass of blastomeres that forms when the zygote splits
motor division of nervous system
Consists of:
SNS-somatic (voluntary): conscious control, which controls skeletal muscles
ANS-autonomic (involuntary or visceral): controls cardiac muscle, smooth muscles and glands. ANS is divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
motor unit
a motor neuron and all the muscle cells it stimulates
mucous membrane
mucus-secreting membrane lining all body cavities or passages that open to the exterior
muscle fiber (cell)
structural unit of skeletal muscles; multinucleated with many mitochondria
muscle tissue
body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move; skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
myelinated axon
length of axon wrapped in a myelin sheath, protective insulation, allows conduction to occur quickly
myofibril
long, filamentous organelle found within muscle cells that has a banded appearance; made up of many sarcomeres
myofilament
filaments found in myofibrils that contain proteins and help muscles contract, actin- or myosin-containing structure.
myometrium
the smooth muscle forming the wall of the uterus
myosin
protein that makes up the thick filaments in striations in skeletal muscle cells
natural killer cells
type of white blood cell that can kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells; an important component of innate immunity.
negative feedback mechanisms
most common of homeostatic control mechanisms; net effect is that the output of the system shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity
nervous tissue
body tissue that carries electrical messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body
neurolemma
sheath around peripheral axons and dendrites, formed by the cytoplasm and nuclei of Schwann cells; is essential for the regeneration of damaged peripheral neurons
neuromuscular junction
the junction between a nerve fiber and the muscle it supplies
neurotransmitter
chemical used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell
neutrons
the particles of the atomic nucleus that have no charge
neutrophils
most abundant type of white blood cell; phagocytic first to respond
nucleic acids
complex macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information; DNA and RNA
osmotic pressure
pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane; higher the solute concentration, the higher the osmotic pressure
ossification
the developmental process of bone formation; endochondral and intramembranous
osteoarthritis
most common form of arthritis that especially affects weight-bearing joints (e.g., knee, hip); characterized by the erosion of articular cartilage
osteoblasts
bone forming cells; respond to calcitonin
osteoclast
cell that functions in the breakdown and resorption of bone tissue; multinucleate cells; respond to parathyroid hormone (PTH)
osteocytes
mature bone cells, develop from osteoblasts; stress detectors; reside in lacuna
osteoporosis
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium
oval window
membrane at the enterance to the cochlea through which the stapes transmit vibrations
ovary
one of usually two organs that produce ova and secrete estrogen and progesterone
ovum
the female reproductive cell
oxyhemoglobin
the bright red hemoglobin that is a combination of hemoglobin and oxygen from the lungs
oxytocin
induces contraction of the uterine muscles during childbirth and causes the mammary glands to eject milk during nursing
pancreas
exocrine gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where it mixes with bile to digest food; endocrine gland - insulin and glucagon
parasympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system; rest and digest
pepsin
An enzyme present in gastric juice that begins the hydrolysis of proteins; active form of pepsinogen
pepsinogens
protein-digesting enzyme produced by cheif cells; inactive form, becoming pepsin in acid environment
perforins
produced by natural killer cells or NK cells; target cancer and virus cells by forming holes in cell membranes
pericardium
a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart
periosteum
a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their articular ends) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
peritoneum
Double-layered membrane surrounding the abdominal organs
Peyer's patches
intestine-associated lymphoid tissue present in the wall of the small intestine, especially the ileum; part of the MALT system
phagocytes
Cells that use phagocytosis to engulf foreign organisms.
phagocytosis
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
phalanges
bones of the fingers and toes
physiology
study of how the body functions
pia mater
thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
pineal gland
located in the center of the brain, functioning to secrete melatonin and serotonin
pinocytosis
process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment; type of endocytosis
pituitary gland
the endocrine system's most influential gland; under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
plasma of blood
liquid part of blood; matrix
platelets
cell fragments that play an important part in forming blood clots; thrombocytes
pleura
double-layered membrane surrounding each lung and lines the thoracic/pleural cavities
polar covalent bonds
a type of covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. the shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom. making one slightly negative and the other slightly positive
polysaccharides
carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides; starch, glycogen, and cellulose
primary bronchi
first branches of the trachea; there are two primary bronchi, one for each lung
primary oocyte
diploid cell in arrested in prophase I of meiosis that can be hormonally triggered to develop into an ovum
progesterone
steroid hormone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary during the second half of the menstrual cycle; maintains and enhances the uterine lining for the possible implantation of a fertilized ovum; is the primary hormone secreted during pregnancy.
prolactin
hormone responsible for milk production
proteins
polymers of amino acids, joined together by peptide bonds in a long chain (a polypeptide chain)
protons
positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom
proximal convoluted tubule
first section of the renal tubule that the blood flows through; reabsorption of water, ions, and all organic nutrients; microvilli
pseudostratified epithelium
single layer of cells of differing heights, nuclei look like at different levels; secretion of mucus and propulsion of mucus by ciliary action; lines much of the respiratory tract
PTH
parathyroid hormone; secreted by the parathyroid glands; PTH regulates uptake of calcium (Ca2+) from the bones into the blood
pulmonary artery
one of two arteries (branches of the pulmonary trunk) that carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary circuit of blood flow
circulation pattern that sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs
pulmonary veins
deliver oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
pupil
opening whose size is determined by the intrinsic iris
Purkinje fibers
extend from branches of A-V bundle, stimulate muscle fibers in the ventricular walls
pyloric sphincter
the sphincter muscle of the pylorus that separates the stomach from the duodenum
radioisotope
isotope with an unstable nucleus that becomes more stable by spontaneously emitting energy and particles (radiation)
rectum
the terminal section of the alimentary canal
relaxin
hormone produced by the placenta that causes softening in the collagen connective tissue of the symphysis pubis and sacroiliac joint
renal hilus
indentation of kidneys where the blood vessels, lymphatic tissues, nerves and ureter pass through
renin
enzyme that is produced by the kidney; important for blood pressure and volume regulation; catalyzes the conversion of circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
rennin
a gastric enzyme produced in young mammals that breaks down milk proteins; curdles milk
retina
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons
ribosomes
non membrane bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis; free or attached to rough ER
rickets
disease due to vitamin D deficiency characterized by deficient calcification and soft bones associated with skeletal deformities
right atrium
the right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae and coronary sinus
right ventricle
the chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary trunk
rough ER
membranous organelle involved in the production of proteins; studded with ribosomes
round window
membrane that relieves pressure from the vibrating waves in the cochlear fluid
SA node
the pace-maker of the heart; where the impulse conduction of the heart usually starts; located in the top of the right atrium
salivary glands
three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands
sarcolemma
cell membrane of a muscle cell (fiber)
sarcomere
the basic contractile unit of striated muscle; the segment of a myofibril between two adjacent z-lines
satellite cells
surround neuron cell bodies in glanglia; protects and regulates nurtients for cell bodies in ganglia
Schwann cells
Supporting cells of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the formation of myelin.
sclera
tough, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve
secondary oocyte
oocyte in which the first meiotic division is completed; ovulated and arrested in metaphase II
secretin
hormone secreted by the small intestine (duodenum) in response to low pH; promotes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas to act as a buffer; bile production in liver
self-antigens
are not foreign or antigenic to you, but are highly antigenic to other individuals, include MHC proteins
semicircular canals
three canals within the inner ear that contain specialized receptor cells that generate nerve impulses with body movement; dynamic equilibrium
seminiferous tubules
small convoluted tubules in the testes where spermatogenesis takes place
sensory division of nervous system
transmits impulses from sense organs to the central nervous system; afferent
serous membrane
a thin membrane lining the closed cavities of the body; secretes serous fluid
sex chromosomes
one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human, contains genes that will determine the sex of the individual; X and Y (XX female, XY male)
simple cuboidal epithelium
single layer of cube-like cells that carry out active transport, facilitated diffusion, or secretion; found in kidney tubules
simple squamous epithelium
single layer of thin, flat cells. It is often found where diffusion or filtration take place (alveoli in lungs, kidneys); covers organs in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities as part of serous membranes
skeletal muscle tissue
striated, voluntary, multinucleate
small intestine
organ that completes the chemical digestion of food and absorbs the nutrients; duodenum, jejunum, ileum
smooth ER
membranous organelle functioning in lipid synthesis, detoxifying, and storage (Ca2+)
smooth muscle tissue
no striations and involuntary, found in walls of hollow visceral organs such as the stomach urinary bladder and blood vessels; peristalsis
sodium-potassium pump
a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport 3 sodium ions out of a cell and 2 potassium ions into the cell; helps establish membrane potential
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
spermatid
haploid but immature cell resulting from the second meiotic division of spermatogenesis; undergo spermiogenesis becoming sperm
spermatogenesis
production of sperm cells
spiral organ of Corti
receptor for hearing located within the cochlea; the organ of hearing; contains hair cells
spleen
organ near the stomach that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells; lymphatic
stapes
the stirrup-shaped ossicle that transmits sound from the incus to the cochlea; oval window
static equilibrium
head orientation and position; vestibule - utricle and saccule
stratified squamous epithelium
squamous epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basement membrane; found in areas of wear; keratinized and nonkeratinized
striated muscle
a muscle that appears banded due to the arrangement of actin and myosin myofilaments
subarachnoid space
a space in the meninges beneath the arachnoid membrane and above the pia mater that contains the cerebrospinal fluid
surfactant
a substance capable of reducing the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved; found in the alveoli
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system mobilizing energy in stressful situations; fight or flight responses
synaptic cleft
space between two connecting neurons where neurotransmitters are released
synovial joint
freely movable joint containing a cavity filled with synovial fluid
systemic circuit of blood flow
the circulatory path that sends oxygenated blood to the body's cells/tissues
T3
triiodothyronine; metabolic hormone from the thyroid
T4
tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine; main metabolic hormone produced by the thyroid
talus
the bone in the ankle that articulates with the leg bones to form the ankle joint
tarsals
7 bones of the ankle
testosterone
a potent androgenic hormone produced chiefly by the testes
thalamus
sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
thoracic cavity
the cavity enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart
thymosin
produced by the thymus gland during childhood, this hormone stimulates T-lymphocyte development and differentiation
thymus gland
endocrine gland at the base of the neck that produces thymosin and aids in producing immunity
thyroid cartilage
the largest cartilage of the larynx
thyroid gland
located in front of the neck, functioning to secrete triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin
thyroid hormone
any of several closely related compounds that are produced by the thyroid gland T3 and T4 (thyroxine); main metabolic hormones
tidal volume
amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during a normal breath; eupnea
tight junctions
membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid
tonsils
oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion; palatine, lingual, and pharyngeal
trabeculae
the irregular latticework of thin bony plates in spongy bone tissue
trachea
membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi
tricuspid valve
valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
triglycerides
long term energy storage molecules formed during condensation synthesis between 3 fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol; fats
tropomyosin
covers myosin binding sites on the actin molecules; prevents myosin and actin from interacting, forming cross bridges
troponin
a regulatory protein that when calcium ions (Ca2+) bind to troponin, it undergoes a change in shape; this change moves tropomyosin away from myosin-binding sites on actin molecules,allowing myosin heads to bind
tubular reabsorption
water, glucose, amino acids, and needed ions are transported out of the filtrate into the tubule cells and then enter the capillary blood; mainly at the proximal convoluted tubule
tubular secretion
process of urine formation: wastes (drugs, toxins) are removed from the blood and secreted into urine
universal blood donor
blood type O negative
universal blood recipient
blood type AB positive
ureter
either of a pair of thick-walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder; peristalsis
urethra
tube that carries urine from the bladder and releases it from the body; in males, tube through which semen is released from the body
uterine tube (fallopian tube)
tubes extending from each side of the uterus toward the ovary that provide a passage for ova to the uterus; usual site of fertilization
vagina
the lower part of the female reproductive tract
vasopressin
hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water; also called antidiuretic hormone or ADH.
veins
a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries toward the heart
vena cava
either of two large veins that return oxygen-depleted blood to the right atrium of the heart
vestibule of inner ear
utricle and saccule are housed here; static equilibrium
villi
tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine
vital capacity
the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation (usually tested with a spirometer)
Volkmann's canals
channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian canal.
voluntary vs. involuntary muscle tissue
skeletal muscle is voluntary; smooth and cardiac muscle is involuntary
XX
normal complement of sex chromosomes in a human female
XY
normal complement of sex hormones in a human male
yellow marrow
fatty tissue found in the medullary cavity of most adult long bones
Z-disc
sheet of proteins that anchor thin filaments and connect myofibrils; sarcomeres extend from z-disc to z-disc
zygote
the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon; fertilized egg
autonomic nervous system
part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs; two divisions: sympathetic division - fight or flight, parasympathetic division rest and digest