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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
AP U.S. History part 2
Terms in this set (50)
St. Augustine (1565)
The first permanent European settlement in the New World settled by the Spanish. It became a successful settlement, and later a fort was built in the area to store and protect Spanish gold from the pirates of the British, like Francis Drake.
The Virginia Joint Stock Company (1606)
A company created by King James II of England to allow individuals to invest in an expedition to the new world (from North Carolina to New York) for profit. The only money that would be lost by investors, if the expedition failed, would be the amount of money invested in the company. This greatly encouraged investment and risk taker.
House of Burgesses (1619)
The first elected assembly in America by the people of Virginia. It was the beginning of representative government in America. Rights and liberties were being extended to the colonies, as if they were British citizens.
Covenant Theology (1629)
The Puritan purpose in new England colonies, like Massachusetts, was to build a holy city on a hill for God to be a beacon and a light to the world of righteousness.
New England Confederation (1643)
And exclusively Puritan colony confederation of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Connecticut excluding Rhode Island for the purpose of creating a united defense against the Indians and establishing a united assembly to deal with England. King James II disbanded the confederation over fear of new England attaining too much power and established the Dominion of NE led by sir Andros to control the area
Navigation Acts (1651)
A series of British acts (laws) placed on the 13 colonies regulating and restricting colonial trade. Taxes and penalties were imposed on the colonists for violation of the acts. For example, if a colonist traded with a restricted country they could be fined, or if they produced a good that was only to be produced by another colony in the British Empire they could be fined or imprisoned.
Bacon's Rebellion (1676)
A rebellion by former indentured servants living in the back country areas around Jamestown, Virginia because they believed they were not to being adequately protected or represented by Jamestown leaders like governor Berkeley. It ultimately failed and led to the demise of indentured servanthood and the rise of slavery.
Zenger Case (1735)
A case helping to establish the principle of freedom of pressand speech in the colonies after a newspaper editor, named Xander, was placed in jail for speaking the truth about the corrupt New York a governor, named Cosby. The jury found the editor innocent because what he reported was accurate.
Albany Plan of Union (1754)
A plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin intended to unify the colonies to find the Huron Indians and the French in the French Indian war of 1754 to 1763. A representative from each colony would participate to raise armies, levy taxes, and deal with Indians. Ben created the "join or die" slogan to emphasize the importance of defeating the autocratic French. The plan was rejected. The individual colonies did not want to get up there a Tonna me and Britain did not want to see the colonies unify and gain strength as a group.
Stamp Act Congress (1765)
A colonial congress formulated to protest the stamp act. The stamp act placed a tax on most colonial paper documents. The act was created and imposed on the colonies without representation. 9 of the 13 colonies attended the meeting and send a list of grievances and a bill of rights demanding representation.
Battle of Saratoga (1777)
A significant revolutionary war battle victory for the American colonies, New York, against the British led by American general Gates against British General Burgoyne. The battle signified a turning point in the war because after the battle the French officially became an alley of the colonies, which greatly helped the Americans in the war and made it global.
Articles of Confederation (1781-1789)
The articles was the first form of government in the United States of America. John Dickinson was appointed to draft the document. The process began during the revolutionary war in 1777 and it was adopted in 1781. The federal government did not have much power and, as a result, most power was given to the individual states. Americans feared a strong central government like that of Britain so the articles were intentionally made to be weak.
Shay's Rebellion (1786)
A revolt of some 1200 farmers in Springfield, Massachusetts Who were having difficulty paying their taxes and their farm/house mortgages. To avoid having their farms foreclosed on them, they forced the courts to close down. The revolt was put down by general Lincoln of the Continental Army. Those wanting a stronger central government than what the articles provided used the rebellion as a means to expose the chaos of mob rule of the people. They also pointed out the inability of the articles to handle such insurrections.
Annapolis Convention (1786)
Along with the Alexandria conference earlier, a gathering of states was created at Annapolis to address the problem of states placing high tariffs and taxes on goods being sold between the states. These taxes were inhibiting the economy and the articles could do nothing to stop it. This conference did not resolve the problem but did set the stage for the Philadelphia convention which turned into the Constitutional convention.
Northwest Ordinance (1787)
I land policy created during the articles of confederation to handle the land acquired from Britain in the revolutionary war. Instead of allowing existing states to get bigger, the newly acquired land would be designated as territories and once the territory reached a population of 60,000 they could then apply for statehood. Slavery would be outlawed in each new state in the northwest.
Virginia Plan (1790)
I plan to allocate state representation in the Constitution according to population only. It was nicknamed the big state plan and the small states opposed it wanting to have equal representation regardless of population size. The Great (Connecticut) Compromise was created incorporating both population (the house) and equality (the senate) in a bicameral Congress.
Federalist Papers (1790)
A collection of 85 essays written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison to convince Americans to ratify the US Constitution with the most famous essay being # 10 by Madison. The focus was on protecting liberties and national interests. Once the bill of rights was agreed to be included in the constitution, the anti-federalist like Thomas Jefferson agreed to sign the document.
Pinckney's Treaty (1795)
After years of dealing with Spanish prohibitions preventing Americans from using the Mississippi River, the Spanish finally allowed Americans, in this treaty, to use and have access to the river all the way to the port of New Orleans. This greatly enhanced American trade and commerce.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798)
After the alien and sedition acts by President John Adams and a federalist controlled Congress limited immigration and prevented free press and speech, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison put forth resolutions to nullify the alien and sedition acts. The concept of nullification was proposed in the compact theory which stated the states give the constitution its power and therefore had the authority to nullify any law of the federal government that suppressed liberties. Jefferson and Madison viewed the acts as a means to silence the democratic republican party and keep power in the hands of the federalist. The resolutions never passed.
Marbury v. Madison case (1803)
Madison as secretary of state refused to sign authorize Asian allowing Marbury to become a federal judge because Madison concluded that the outgoing president Adams only appointed him and other judges at midnight just before leaving office so that the Federalist party would maintain power through these 62 newly appointed judges. John Marshall the chief justice of the Supreme Court ruled in favor of Madison and Marbury but in the case Marshall, a federalist, created the concept of judicial review which was more important to him than Marbury. Judicial review established the power of the judicial branch to determine the constitutionality of laws made by Congress and others made by the president.
Chesapeake/Leopold Affair (1806)
The American ship Chesapeake was stopped on the free seas by the British and the goods and the sailors were seized to help them in their ongoing wars with France. Upset Americans demanded something be done and President Jefferson and congress created the embargo act which forbid any trade with any country until Britain and France stopped harassing and seizing US ships. Americans in new England in particular protested the embargo act as it hurt their livelihood which was largely based on trade.
War of 1812
A war during the presidency of James Madison between Britain and America over a multitude of issues including British seizing of US ships, British forts in the west on US land, British support for Indians against America, and other issues like a border disputes. Both American and Britain agreed to abruptly end the war in the Treaty of Ghent without solving all the issues that brought about the war to avoid further bloodshed and loss of needed resources. It has been called America's second war of independence.
Hartford Convention (1814)
Federalists in the new England region of America were not in support of the war of 1812 because they traded heavily with British companies and could no longer do so as a result of the war. They felt each state had a right to not fight and a right to say no to war with Britain or any war. They wanted the states to have the opportunity to vote to support the war or not. They were seeking separate peace with Britain and were aiding Britain with communication, supplies, and money in the war. The Treaty of Ghent ended the war of 1812 abruptly and the federalist looked treasonous. This ended up making the Federalist party lose support.
Rush-Bagot Agreement (1818)
Not long after the end of the war of 1812, in the Treaty of Ghent, Britain and America began addressing issues that caused the war as a means to avoid future conflicts. The two countries agreed to limit the number of war ships in the great lakes to decrease the chance of conflict And respect each countries rights and borders at the same time.
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Missouri applied to become a state of America and was the first territory of many to come from the Louisiana purchase to apply for statehood. The status of Missouri being a slave or free state would upset the equal balance of slave and free states. It was 11 free and 11 slave. To settle the impasse henry Clay introduced a compromise that would allow Missouri to be a slave state and have maine enter at the same time as a free state to keep the balance. Clay also created a line of 36° 30 for future admissions of territories as states. Territories above 36° 30 would be free states and those below would be slave states.
Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
After denying the right of the Cherokee Indians to have status as a separate nation in America and the Cherokee v. Georgia case Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Marshall granted Cherokee individuals protections of rights and property in Georgia and the Worchester case. Those in Georgia overwhelmingly wanted the Cherokee removed from their land and President Jackson allowed Georgia to remove the Cherokee. Jackson, in effect, ignored the decision of the Supreme Court protecting Cherokee rights and property. The Cherokee were forced West in the Indian removal act and the removal became part of the trail tears of the five civilized tribes.
Nullification Crisis (1833)
Tariffs or taxes placed on goods imported into America from other countries were beginning to upset the southern states more and more. The south believed they were being forced to buy goods they needed from the north at a price that was much higher than for example the same British goods before the tariff. the south led by South Carolina threatened to nullify the tariff of 1832 if the tariff was not lowered significantly and even talked of seceding from America. henry Clay introduced the compromise tariff of 1833 reducing the tariff over a ten-year period and the south agreed.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)
A border dispute erupted between America and Britain over the maine and British controlled Canadian border lines. lumberjacks from both countries ended up fighting leading to the Aristook war. US secretary of state Webster of president Tyler negotiated a settlement with British ambassador Ashburton where the land in dispute was split in half and an all out war was avoided.
Mexican-American War (1846-48)
President of Mexico Santa Anna was enraged when America under President Tyler annexed or claimed Texas as state of America. America then claimed the Mexican American border was the Rio grande river in Texas while Mexico claimed it was a much more northern Nueces river in Texas. Mexico and America both had soldiers in the disputed area and fighting broke out. President Polk and Congress declared war and after two years America defeated Santa Anna and Mexico. the Treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo was signed ending the war. America increased its land by 1/3 and Mexico decrease it's land size by 1/2 approximately. Texas became a slave state and the issue of the expansion of slavery greatly intensified after the war.
Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
Meeting in New York to address women's rights. a declaration of sentiments was presented at the meeting which was much like the declaration of independence of 1776. women demanded more rights like the right to vote. leaders were Lucretia Mott and Susan B Anthony. many women actively participated in the reform movements of the antebellum time. Or the pre-Civil War like feminism, abolition, temperance and education.
Gadsden Purchase (1853)
Five years after the Mexican American war ended America paid Mexico $15 million approximately for land south of New Mexico for the purpose of building a Southern trans continental railroad.
Lecompton Constitution (1856)
Kansas was being torn part bt the issue of slavery. territories (future states of America) were allowed to choose the status of slavery based on the concept of popular sovereignty where by people and prospective states could vote on the status of slavery and the majority could win. Stephen Douglas introduced the Kansas Nebraska act in 1854 which allowed popular sovereignty to determine the status of slavery this Constitution was the way in which slavery will be decided in Kansas. the vote was against slavery but a proviso was included in the constitution that would allow present slave owners to keep their slaves affectively allowing slavery to continue in Kansas which outraged abolitionists.
Presidential Election of 1860
Four candidates ran for president from four different parties and the central issue was slavery. Lincoln ran as a Republican who would not allow the extension of slavery into any new territory of America. Douglas ran as a Northern Democrats will allow slavery to be decided by popular sovereignty, Breckenridge ran as Southern Democrat who advocated secession if the south cannot keep slaves and Bell ran as union party who viewed keeping the union together the primary issue above that of ending or keeping slavery. Lincoln won and the south then decided to secede seeing his election as the beginning of the end of slavery although Lincoln stated he would let the south keep their slaves at the time.
Tenure of Office Act (1867)
This law forbid the president of the United States from firing one of his cabinet members without the consent and approval of Congress first. President Johnson was the southerner from Tennessee who was the vice President of Lincoln. as President Johnson became more sympathetic towards the south radical Republicans became infuriated because They wanted to make sure that The old south did not come back with segregation laws and such after the Civil War after numerous political battles was Johnson on reconstruction the radical Republicans created to near of office act knowing Johnson was five Secretary of War Stanton for revealing delicate information to them Johnson was impeached by the house of representatives for violating the act but was not removed from office as president and the senate trial Johnson search out the rest of his term as a lame duck (powerless) president.
Compromise of 1877
American Federation of Labor AFL (1886)
Homestead Steel Strike (1892)
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Spanish-American War (1898)
Square Deal (1901)
Quota System (1921 and 1924)
New Deal (1933)
D-Day Invasion (1944)
Containment Doctrine (1947)
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Warren Commission (1964)
TET offensive (1968)
Iran Hostage Crisis (1979)
Gulf War (1991)
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