Supreme Court Cases
Terms in this set (32)
Marbury v. Madison
The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress
McCulloch v. Maryland
Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. The Court ruled that the necessary and proper clause of the Constitution granted Congress implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers found in the Constitution.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Supreme Court decision that ruled that the Constitution gave control of interstate commerce to the U.S. Congress, not the individual states through which a route passed.
Barron v. Baltimore
the 1833 Supreme Court decision that the Bill of Rights restrained only the national government, not the states and cities
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court decision that racial segregation in public places facilities did not violate the 14th Amendment; overturned by the Supreme Court in 1954
Schenck v. US
Supreme Court decision in which the constitutionality of the Espionage Act was upheld in a case of a man who was imprisoned for distributing pamphlets against the draft. The majority opinion of the Court said the right to free speech could be limited when it represented a "clear and present danger" to public safety
Gitlow v. New York
Court decision that used the 14th Amendment to apply the 1st Amendment freedom of speech to the states
Adarand Constructors v. Pena
Supreme Court decision that stated federal government programs that classify based on race should be assumed unconstitutional and put up to strict scrutiny. They're only okay if they are "narrowly tailored" for a "compelling governmental interest."
Brown v. Board of Education
Overturned previous Supreme Court ruling that separate but equal facilities were constitutional; stated that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional
Mapp v. Ohio
Supreme Court decision that stated the exclusionary rule (evidence seized in violation of the 4th Amendment could not be used in court) applied to states as well as the federal government
Engel v. Vitale
Supreme Court decision that state-sponsored prayer in public school violates the 1st Amendment establishment clause
Baker v. Carr
case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congresional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
Abington Township v. Schempp
Supreme Court ruled that school-sponsored Bible reading & recitation of Lord's Prayer violated the Establishment Clause of the 1st Amendment and was unconstitutional.
Gideon v. Wainright
Supreme Court decision that ruled the 6th Amendment requires
that courts provide a lawyer for defendants who cannot provide one for themselves
Griswold v. Connecticut
Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution protected a right to privacy.
Miranda v. Arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
Roe v. Wade
Supreme Court ruled that state laws banning all abortions were unconstitutional because they violated the constitutional right to privacy established in Griswold v. Connecticut. The Court determined that during the first trimester of pregnancy, women had the right to an abortion without state restrictions. The Court permitted states to limit abortions to protect the mother's health in the second trimester, and permitted states to protect the fetus during the third trimester.
US v. Lopez
Supreme Court ruled that passing the Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce, making the law unconstitutional
South Dakota v Dole
Supreme Court ruled that Congress is allowed to attach "strings" (conditions of aid) to federal money given to states (raise drinking age to 21 to get highway funds)
Bush v. Gore
Supreme Court ruled that Florida vote recount violated equal protection clause (some votes would be examined more closely than others); ended Gore's challenge to 2000 election results and effectively decided the 2000 election
Clinton v. City of New York
Supreme Court ruled that the line-item veto given to the president as a result of Congress passing the Line Item Veto Act of 1996 was unconstitutional because it violated the Constitutional separation of powers
District of Columbia v. Heller
Supreme Court ruled that the District of Columbia's gun control law was unconstitutional and that the 2nd amendment protects the fundamental right of individuals to own guns and applies to private gun ownership, not just militias
INS v. Chadha
Supreme Court ruled that legislative vetoes that voids an action of the executive branch violated the separation of powers doctrine in the Constitution and are unconstitutional
Lemon v. Kurtzman
Supreme Court ruled that a Pennsylvania law that allowed state funding for religious schools violated the establishment clause of the 1st Amendment. In this decision, the court developed the three-prong "Lemon Test" as criteria for determining whether the establishment clause has been violated
Tinker v. Des Moines
Supreme Court ruled that suspending students for wearing black arm bands protesting the Vietnam War was unjustified and that the armbands represented "symbolic speech" that was protected by the 1st Amendment. Court decision said that students' rights to free speech "do not stop at the schoolhouse gates"
Texas v. Johnson
Supreme Court ruled that burning an American flag for the purpose of political protest was symbolic speech protected by the 1st Amendment and that state laws that make flag-burning illegal are unconstitutional
Grutter v. Bollinger
Supreme Court ruled that the University of Michigan law school's use of racial preferences in deciding admissions did not violate the Equal Protection clause of the 14th Amendment as long as race was not the primary factor used in determining admission
Miller v. California
A 1973 Supreme Court decision that avoided defining obscenity by holding that community standards be used to determine whether material is obscene in terms of appealing to a "prurient interest" and being "patently offensive" and lacking in value.
Printz v. United States
Supreme Court ruled that Congress did not have the power to require local law enforcement chiefs to regulated handgun purchases as required by the federal Brady Law
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
A Pennsylvania law required that women seeking abortions had to wait 24 hours, that minors seeking an abortion had to get parental consent, and that a married woman had to notify her husband that she was going to have an abortion. The question on whether this law violated the 4th Amendment reached the Supreme Court. Court ruled that the 24-hour waiting period and parental consent did not violate the Constitution, but that the spousal approval provision of the law was unconstitutional
US v. Nixon
The Supreme Court ruled that the president's powers of executive privilege applied only to national security issues not a generalized need for privacy, The Court ordered President Nixon to release the Watergate tapes
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
Supreme Court ruled that states can place restrictions on abortions (viability tests, no use of public facilities for abortions, no counseling to have abortions) but cannot outlaw them.
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