25 terms

Digestive System, Digestive system

These words review the important functions and structures of the digestive system.
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stomach
An organ of the digestive system where most mechanical breaking down of food happens
esophagus
A muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
large intestine
Absorbs water and forms feces
liver, gallbladder, pancreas
organs that create chemicals that help the small intestines break down food
Liver
Breaks down toxins, such as alcohol and processes nutrients into forms easier for the rest of your body to use. Makes glycogen from glucose
mouth
where digestion begins
small intestine
Long hollow tube where most absorption of nutrients occurs
pancreas
An organ in the abdominal cavity with two roles. The first is to produce digestive enzymes . The second is to secrete insulin into the bloodstream to help regulate blood glucose levels.
gall bladder
An organ that stores bile and releases it as needed into the small intestine
digestion, absorption, elimination
functions of digestive system in 3 words
liver
produces bile
rectum
The sigmoid colon empties into this area. It stores solid waste and compresses into more solid form before releasing it to be expelled out through the anus
chemical digestion
breaking down food with enzymes
mechanical digestion
crushing, mashing, churning, thus breaking down food into smaller pieces
cecum
chyme empties from the small intestine into this structure. It is the beginning of the large intestine
duodenum
first part of small intestine
chyme
thick slippery paste of food molecules after the food has been churned and mixed with digestive acids
amylase
an enzyme, found chiefly in saliva and pancreatic fluid, that converts starch and glycogen into simple sugars
pepsin
enzyme in stomach that breaks down protein
hydrochloric acid
kills bacteria in stomach and gives an acidic environment for enzymes to work
villi
fingerlike projections in the small intestine that increase surface area
pharynx
the part of the alimentary canal immediately behind the mouth, connecting the mouth to the esophagus
peristalsis
involuntary squeezing action of the muscles in the digestive system; causes food to move through
epiglottis
flap of tissue that covers the trachea when swallowing food
bacteria
organisms found in the large intestine that help with digestion of solid matter
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