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APES CHAPTER 2
Terms in this set (33)
The deep ecology worldview
understanding of our place in the world based on harmony with nature and a spiritual respect for life
The Western world view most closely resembles the
emission reduction credits
Economic strategies for pollution
the cost of society of having less pollution being offset by the benefits to society of the activity creating the pollution
optimal amount of pollution
Provisions of the Endangered Species Act
require the government to protect the habitat of endangered species so that their numbers increase
a range of projects designed to prioritize environmental regulation decisions by ranking risks and impacts to human health and ecosystems
comparative risk analysis
The National Environmental Policy Act
requires the evaluation of federal highway construction and military projects
U.S. president that was most responsible for setting aside national forests in the late 1800s and early 1900s?
considers political, economic, societal, and individual tradeoffs, the moral basis of environmental responsibility, how humans should relate to the natural environment, what role humans play in determining the fate of Earth's resources.
The cost, in environmental quality, of a unit of pollution that is emitted into the environment
marginal cost of pollution
the first head of the U.S. Forest Service
Western Xanadu's landfill is permitted to place a maximum of 350 tons per day into its landfill but must trade 50 extra tons to a nearby county.
marketable waste-discharge permit
work heightened public awareness and concern about the use of pesticides and ultimately led to restriction on the use of certain pesticides
University of Oxford philosopher John Broome argues that society has not adequately considered the ethical consequences of global warming. These ethical considerations include all except the following:
focusing on the expected outcomes of global climate change based on the best available climate models
Environmental impact statements (EISs):
must be made available to the public
The world's first national park was established in
gave authority to the president to establish forest reserves on federally owned land
General Revision Act
is a critique of economic approaches to environmental regulation?
both it's difficult to assess the costs of environmental damage, and utilitarian economics are not universally accepted
is not included in an environmental impact statement (EIS)?
guarantees that no species or habitat will be negatively impacted by the proposal
The study of how people use their limited resources to try to satisfy their unlimited wants is termed
One approach to pollution control is incentive-based regulation.
both green taxes are levied on industries that represent an emission charge on polluters, and pollution control laws establish emission targets and industries are provided enticements to reduce emissions
In the field of economics, the additional cost associated with one more unit of something is called a(n)
Having a bottle of freon cost a consumer $2,000 to pay for the damage it does to the ozone layer when it is eventually released into the environment is an example of adding in
the effects of pollution in Central and Eastern Europe
-Many Polish children have suffered from respiratory and heart problems by the age of 10.
-Levels of cancer, miscarriages, and birth defects are extremely high.
-Many inhabitants suffer from respiratory diseases from the polluted air.
-The average life expectancy for Eastern Europeans is 11 years lower than Western Europeans.
countries that have restructured their taxes to take into account environmentally destructive products and activities
naturalist that was the founder of the Sierra Club and the force behind the establishment of Yosemite and Sequoia national parks
Issues that added to the complexity of the controversy over harvesting timber from old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest
included the fact that the timber industry had already begun to decline due to increasing automation of the industryThis is the correct answer.
not a successful pollution-control outcome according to the EPA
50% of rivers and streams are in violation of water quality standards
According to the EPA's Draft Report on the Environment 2003, levels of wet sulfate, a major component of acid rain, have dropped by 20-30% since 1990. This success may be attributed to
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
Pollution is considered an external cost because...
its cost to the environment is not reflected in the price of the product that produces it
The legislation that authorizes the President of the United States to set aside national monuments
the shortening of time and effort put into performing environmental impact statements
positive outcomes from environmental legislation since 1970
-soil erosion has been reduced by nearly 60%
-the Bald Eagle has been removed from the endangered species list
-23 national parks have been established
-The California Gray Whale has been removed from the endangered species list
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