48 terms

Snip AP court cases

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Gideon vs. Wainwright
Right to a lawyer in a STATE trial, given by the 6th.
Roe vs. Wade
This case used the implied right to privacy to restrict government interference with abortion.
Clinton vs. New York
This case ruled that the line-item veto violated the separation of powers doctrine.
West Virginia vs. Barnette
Overruled Minersville vs. Gobitis; ruled that states could NOT compel students to recite the pledge.
Minersville vs. Gobitis
The court ruled that states could compel students to recite the pledge at school even if it violated their religious beliefs.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
This case established the "separate but equal" doctrine.
Brown vs. Board of Education
This case overruled the "separate but equal" doctrine.
Gibbons vs. Ogden
Established a broad view of the commerce clause when a federal Steamboat license trumped a New York state license.
Civil Rights Cases
This post civil war decision stated that the 14th Amendment only outlawed government discrimination and could not stop PRIVATE businesses (theatres, hotels...) from discrimination.
Barron vs. Baltimore
the 1833 decision holding that the bill of rights (Fifth Amendment) restrained only the national gov't, and NOT the states.
South Dakota vs. Dole
This case was a loss for state power when the Supreme Court upheld a law that withheld Federal Highway funds to states that did not have a 21 year old drinking age.
Scott vs. Sandford
Justice Taney's opinion in this case stated that slave owners could take their slaves anywhere in the U.S. and that slaves had no rights to be in federal court.
U.S. vs. Lopez
The Court held that Congress had exceeded its commerce clause power by prohibiting guns in school zones
Marbury vs. Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional.
McCulloch vs. Maryland
Court ruled that Congress did have authority to charter bank, citing the necessary and proper clause.
Fletcher vs. Peck
John Marshall ruled against a state legislature that invalidated corrupt land sales in order to protect property rights.
Baker vs. Carr
Supreme court ruled that they could rule on whether legislative districts were fair; established the principle "one man one vote"
Reynolds vs. Sims
The Supreme Court ruling that both Houses of State districts must be roughly equal in population.
Mapp vs. Ohio
illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in STATE trial, (forbids unreasonable search and seizures)
Weeks vs. U.S.
The courts held that evidence obtained illegally by federal officers can not be used in the federal courts.
New Jersey vs. T.L.O.
The Fourth Amendment prohibition on unreasonable searches applies to schools and public school officials.
Engel vs. Vitale
Cae that said organized prayer is unconstitutional in school.
Texas vs. Johnson
Ruled that a person has a constitutional right to burn the american flag.
Miranda vs. Arizona
Your rights must be read to you..., 5th, 6th and 14th amend. confession was illegally, must be warned prior that he has a right to remain silent and other rights that are given to you.
Furman vs. Georgia
invalidated states death penalty laws based on the 8th amendment concept of "cruel and unusual punishment"
Schneck vs. U.S.
speech was not constitutionally protected if it posed a "clear and present danger" to the country, thus creating the "clear and present danger" test to apply to 1st amend.
Epperson vs Arkansas
The Court held that the Arkansas statute forbidding the teaching of evolution in public learning institutions was contrary to the freedom of religion mandate of the First Amendment, and was also in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Tinker vs. Des Moines
Supreme Court case that stated that students do not lose their freedom of speech rights in high school. Students wore black arm bands to protest the Vietnam War.
New York Times vs. U.S.
The Government must strongly justify any abridgment of a newspaper's freedom of speech, as long as it does not threaten national security.
U.S. vs. Nixon
The Court decided that the President must hand over incriminating tapes because Presidential power is not above the law.
University of California Regents vs. Bakke
Race may be taken into account when allowing students to higher education institutions as long as it is not the primary reason for allowing a student in.
Cruzan vs. Director , Missouri Department of Health
The Court found that a person did have a liberty interest under the Fourteenth Amendment to refuse medical treatment, provided there was "clear and convincing" evidence the person did not want artificial support to keep them alive.
Terry vs. Ohio
Allowed the police to stop and search a suspect if he has reasonable suspicion that the person has committed a crime.
Grutter vs. Bollinger
University of Michigan Law School admissions program that gave special consideration for being a certain racial minority did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment.
Buckley vs. Valeo
The Court Upheld a federal law which set limits on campaign contributions, but ruled that spending money to influence elections is a form of constitutionally protected free speech, and struck down portions of the law.
New York Times vs. Sullivan
Court ruled that libelous statements made about public officials with actual malice is illegal.
Griswold vs. Connecticut
A Connecticut law criminalizing the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. Under the due process clause of the 14th Amendment.
Everson vs. Board of Education
The Establishment Clause of the First Amendment is incorporated against the states. Government can not interfer with any Religious activities national or state level.
McCollum vs. Board of Education
The use of public school facilities by religious organizations to give religious instruction to school children violates the no-establishment-of-religion clause of the First Amendment.
Wisconsin vs. Yoder
School Attendance Law violated the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment because required attendance past the eighth grade interfered with the right of Amish parents to direct the religious upbringing of their children.
Gitlow vs. New York
Incorporated 1st Amendment right of Free Speech to the states, using the 14th Amendment.
Betts vs. Brady
Case that denied counsel to indigent defendants when prosecuted by a state; overruled by Gideon vs. Wainwright.
Bush vs. Gore
The court ruled that manual recounts of presidential ballots in the Nov. 2000 election could not proceed because inconsistent evaluation statdards in different counties violated the equal protection clause.
Miller vs. California
Court held that obscenity was not protected by the First Amendment and defined obscene material as those that the average person, applying contemporary community standards, find, taken as a whole, appeal to the prurient interest; that depict or describe, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by applicable state law; and that, taken as a whole, lack serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
Lemon vs. Kurtzman
For a law to be considered constitutional under the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, the law must have a legitimate secular purpose, must not have the primary effect of either advancing or inhibiting religion, and must not result in an excessive entanglement of government and religion.
Westberry vs. Sanders
U.S. House of Rep's districts must be roughly equal in population; (one man one vote)
Oregon vs Smith
ruled that using peyote in religious rituals does not entitle you to keep your job or unemployment benefits on "free exercise" clause grounds
Gregg vs Georgia
court ruled that the death penalty could be used again but required 2 trials (1 to determine guilt, 2 to determine if the death penalty is warranted)