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Total Institutions

social arrangement that encompasses every aspect of someone's life and is controlled by someone in higher power; penal instructions; wipe away ties with outside community; stripping individual of his "old self"; Goffman

Institutions established to care for people who are incapable of caring for themselves and are harmless

type of total institution; nursing homes, homeless shelters, shelters for blind

Institutions for people who cannot take care for themselves and thought to be a treat to the community

type of total institution; mental hospitals, sanitariums

Institutions organized to protect the community from potential dangers to it

type of total institution; prisons, jails, penitentiaries, concentration camp

Institutions designed to better pursuit some technical tasks and justify themselves only on these grounds

type of total institution; boarding schools, army barracks, work camps

Institutions designed as retreats from the world or as training stations for the religious

type of total institution; monasteries

3 Spheres of Total Institutions

1. under one authority in total institution; 2. overall rational plan on the outside in total institution; 3. co-participants (you live with different people)

Mortification Process of Total Institution

death of old self - happens at intake (break connection with outside, personal assets, given ID#)

4 Different Ways An Inmate Reacts to Total Institutions

Situational Withdrawal; Rebellion; Colonization; Conversion

Situational Withdrawal (Total Institutions)

inmates withdrawals events that only relate to themselves; person gives up on goals and gives up on programs; Jailing

Rebellion (Total Institutions)

inmate intentionally challenges institution; done by refusing to cooperate with staff and rules and regulations of facilities; inmates that need to be broken down (young inmates); Disorganized Criminal

Colonization (Total Institutions)

inmate accepts life on the inside; inmate that thinks he never had it so good; happy with what he now has; life on inside for inmate is better then on outside; people who would try to mess up to stay longer in institution; Cleaning

Conversion (Total Institutions)

inmates completely takes over the official staff member's view of himself; the "square john" - obeys all rules; doesn't deviate from the structure of the facility; Doing Time

Inmate Code (Donald Clemmer)

set of rules of conduct for inmates; rules reflect values and norms of prison social society; creates an image of the model prisoner in the eyes of the inmates (crimes should be honorable)


new inmate absorbs the customs of prison society and learns to adapt to environment

Limitations of Prisonization

short sentences; refusal to be part of a group; constant connection to outside

Deprivation (Prison Subculture; Sykes)

come from pains and losses of incarceration; liberty is first thing lost; deprivation of autonomy; put through extreme isolation; deprivation fo goods and services; deprivation of heterosexual relationships (anxiety towards masculinity); deprivation of security; subcultures came out as a way to adapt to the prison subcultures

Rats/Squealers (Categories of Prisoners)

they do it for self-interest; get extra favors from guards and staff

Gorillas (Categories of Prisoners)

take what they want by meaning of force

Weaklings (Categories of Prisoners)

submissive to the Gorillas and give in to their needs

Merchant (Categories of Prisoners)

in charge of getting the inmates what they need; cigarettes main source of currency

Wolves (Categories of Prisoners)

play an aggressive role; respected because their homosexuality is a form of power; don't consider themselves gay

Punks/Fags (Categories of Prisoners)

play a submissive part

Centermen (Categories of Prisoners)

side with officials not to secure favors, but he shares their viewpoint; falls under Goffman's conversion category; not afraid to show where sympathy lies

Ball-Busters (Categories of Prisoners)

inmates that express open defiance/blatant disobedience; cause disturbances in facility; not respected and hated in prison society; viewed as a fool

Real Men (Categories of Prisoners)

wants to do his time and not anyone else's; usually lifers who abide by rules; not taken advantage of by other inmates

Importation (Sykes)

inmates go into prison with distinct set of values; status in community

Convict (Imported Subculture)

state raised youths that are in and out of foster homes/detention centers; used to living in a single sex environment; people who have been incarcerated before; been part of a total institution before; know how to navigate through it

Thief (Imported Subculture)

looks at stay in prison as a break in criminal career; will get out and commit another crime

Straight (Imported Subculture)

first time offenders; bring culture of conventional society and do not know prison subculture

Punishment Prior to 1800s

men and women had the same punishments; men, women, and children housed in the same facilities

Punishment in Late 1700s to Early 1800s

women were segregated from men in incarceration; horrible conditions for facilities for both men and women (women may have had worse conditions); females who deviated were viewed worse then men (given harsher punishment)

Elizabeth Frye

Quaker in 1800s; advocated for change in punishment for women; wanted segregated facilities; wanted rehab programs to be gendered

Women's Prison Association (WPA)

in charge of looking at women prison conditions; look at sentence lengths; look at equality between corrections between men and women

Reformatories for Men and Women in 1870s to 1930s

reformatories operated by women and for women; resembles cottage communities instead of looking like prisons - private rooms instead of cells, women learned domestic skills, many programs treated women like children; male reformatories became outdates; segregation of men and women in reformatories still kept today

Reasons for Major Influx of Women Incarceration

war on drugs (women charged in conspiracy); domestic case (women now liable); longer sentences for women; gender roles breaking down

Reasons Women are Known as Forgotten Offenders

1. constitute a small proportion of correctional population; 2. women commit fewer crimes then men; 3. female criminality tends to be less series (commit less violent crimes); 4. popular social attitudes tends to put all females in a subservient position; 5. women have been excluded from the CJ system (lenient treatment)

Institutionalized Sexism

caused by low status of female criminality; few female offenders in correctional facilities

Examples of Institutionalized Sexism

women's prisons are located further from friends and family (prohibits visits); women's prisons have less educational, vocational, and other programs available in prisons (most programs are gender stereotypes - cooking/home economics); women's prisons lack specialization and treatment and fail to segregate offenders who present special problems or have special needs

Square (Women Prison Experience)

situational offender; first or second offense; conforms to conventional forms

Life (Women Prison Experience)

persistent offenders; act in prison as they do on outside; stand firm against authority; usually anti-social; represent about half of female prison population

Cool (Women Prison Experience)

they are manipulative; stay out of trouble by using hidden channels

Pseudo Families (Women Prison Experience)

women that have different roles in a "family"; gang-like

Distinguishing Features of Female Prisons

small facilities; less security; inmate-staff relations are less structured; less physical violence; less development of an underground economy; less committed to inmate code; sentences are usually much shorter; have more serious health concerns

Women in Prison and Children

if in prison for more then 16 months then they lose their rights to their child

3 Driving Forces for Capital Punishment

1. Rehabilitation; 2. Deterrence; 3. Retribution

Reasons Supporting Death Penalty

deters criminals from committing violent acts; makes the criminal pay for horrible crimes; prevents murderers from committing further harm against society; less expensive then holding violent criminals in prison for life

Reasons Opposing Death Penalty

no proof that it deters criminals against crime (murder in state with death penalty same as those without); wrong for government to participate in the intentional killing of its citizens; applied in a discriminatory fashion (never known when it will be given); innocent people have been executed

Furman v. Georgia (1972)

key supreme court case on death penalty; found death penalty as administered was cruel and unusual punishment; the sentence was based on chance (never knew when it would be administered); put a moratorium on it for 4 years (people on death row were changed to life sentences with parole [got out and recidivated]); states wanted it because public agrees with it

Gregg v. Georgia (1976)

found that they death penalty is constitutional as long as the sentencing judge and the jury take into account certain aggravating and mitigating factors; have to create 2 trials (bifurcated process); most states put death penalty back as a sanction

Bifurcated Process

1st trial to decide if they are guilty or not (sentencing phase); 2nd trial to decide the punishment they will get

Atkins v. Virginia (2002)

mentally ill and capital punishment; rules that execution of mentally ill was unconstitutional

Capital Punishment and Juveniles

in 2005 it was unconstitutional; could not execute juveniles; juveniles on death row were sentenced to life without parole

Collateral Consequences

civil penalties, road blocks, invisible punishments; additional sanctions inmates face after they serve their time in prison; the transition period after incarceration is very restricted (welfare, jobs, education); have been adopted across the country (doubled in past 10 years); CO hardest state to transition back into; severity of sanctions have increased as well

Housing Opportunity Program Extension Act (H.O.P.E. 1996)

permits housing agencies to deny anyone to has a drug crime; any member of household that commits a drug felony can cause the housing agency to evict them from the household (lifetime ban)

Public Assistance and Food Stamps (Welfare Reform Act)

lifetime ban on food stamps and temporary assistance denied for needed families for anyone who committed a drug related felony (only 12 states have opted out of it)

Higher Education Act

denial of financial aide for a person with a criminal conviction

Right to Vote (Felon Disenfranchisement)

48 states have restrictions of voting for convictions

Employment Restrictions

most employers are not willing to hire people with past convictions; major cities want to "take away the box" on the applications (for crime box)

Diva Pager

looked at employment rates with convictions; took members of her graduating class and broke them into groups (4 groups of race/conviction); race played more of a factor then criminal record; whites with criminal record received more offers then blacks without record

Child Custody (Adoption and Safe Families Act)

allows termination if the child has been in state custody for 15 of last 21 months


the conditional release of an inmate from incarceration after part of the prison sentence has been served; release is typically a period of supervision in the community; offender must comply with specific behavioral requirements during this time; felony offenders paroled (misdemeanor offenders are not)

3 Concepts Parole Rests On

1. grace or privilege; 2. contract of consent; 3. custody

Parole Eligibility

the point in a prisoner's sentence when he/she is first legally able to be released from prison

Dual Meaning of Parole

1. a mechanism whereby offenders are released from prison, usually by a "parole board"; 2. a method (and period) of supervision the offender spends in the community

Origins of Parole

came from English, Australian, & Irish practices as conditional pardon, apprenticeship by indenture, transportation, and "tickets-of-leave"; usually used as responses to problems of overcrowding, labor shortages, and incarceration costs

Release Mechanisms

3 primary ways: discretionary release; mandatory release; expiration release; other conditional releases

Discretionary Release

release of an inmate (to conditional supervision) at the discretion of the parole board, within boundaries of sentence and law; inmate is subject

Mandatory Release

required release of an inmate (to conditional supervision) at the expiration of a certain time period, as determines by law or parole guidelines

Expiration Release

release of an offender from custody (no additional supervision); offender may not be returned to prison for any part of sentence; applies in cases of commutation, pardon, or end of sentence

Other Conditional Releases

placements in the community; release from prison to halfway houses, home supervision, emergency release; a way to avoid using the term 'parole'; prisoners also released from death or escapes


when people fail on parole, their parolee status is revoked and they return to prison to continue serving their sentences; parole can be revoked for two reasons: 1. committing a new crime; 2. violating conditions of parole ("technical violation")

Conditions of Release

restrictions placed on parolees' conduct that must be obeyed as a legally binding requirement of being released

Duel Role of Parole Officer

like probation officers, parole officers are asked to play a duel role of cop and social worker; conflict between two roles; more emphasis of cop role

Cop (Parole Officer)

surveillance; search; enforcement; arrest; suspend parole; initiate revocation

Social Worker (Parole Officer)

find job; restore family ties; service referral; intermediary; advocate

4 Characterizations of Parole Officers

paternal officers; welfare workers; punitive officers; passive agents

Paternal Officers (Parole Officer)

protect both the offender and community by means of assistance, lectures, praise, and blame

Welfare Workers (Parole Officer)

want the greater good of their clients and they help the clients' individual adjustment toward that end

Punitive Officers (Parole Officer)

guardians of middle-class morality and attempt to bring the offender into conformity by threats and punishments

Passive Agents (Parole Officer)

see their jobs as secure and expend only minimal energy

Residential Programs

these serve offenders when they are first released from prison; most house a limited number of offenders at any one time; they are often referred to as "community correctional centers"; they usually provide counseling, drug treatment, and impose strict curfews on residents when they are not working

Problems with Residential Centers

high staff-resident rations; high operating expenses; some have high failure rates; many are not welcomed in their communities

Offender's Difficulties with Post-Release Experience

strangeness of re-entry (unfamiliar world; friends; relationships; new decisions); unmet personal needs (money, job, education); barriers to success (close monitoring; civil disabilities; job impediments); health risks; social exclusion

Civil Remedies for Disabilities

expungement of criminal record; pardon

Expungement of Criminal Record

a legal process that is supposed to result in removal of official record of conviction; in fact, records are kept; process if cumbersome and inadequate


an act of clemency by executive branch of state or federal government excusing an offense and absolving offender from consequences of crime

3 Purposes of "Pardon"

1. remedy miscarriage of justice; 2. remove stigma of conviction; 3. mitigate a penalty

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