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95 terms

Unit 3 Test

STUDY
PLAY
Recombinant DNA
DNA molecule carrying genes derived from two or more sources
Gene Cloning
production of multiple identical copies of gene-carrying piece of DNA
Genetic Engineering
manipulate genes for practical purposes
Vector
piece of DNA used to move genes from one cell to another
Genomic Library
set of DNA segments representing an organism's entire genome
Genetically Modified Organism
organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means
Gene Therapy
treatment for a disease in which the patient's defective gene is altered or provided for
DNA Profiling
DNA printing
Genomics
study of whole sets and their interactions
DNA Technology
used for diagnosis and treatment of disease
Vaccines
harmless variant of pathogen used to stimulate host organism's immune system
Trangenic Organisms
organism that contains genes from another species
Adaptation
inherited characteristic that enhances an organism's ability to survive and reproduce; behavioral, structural, biochemical, physiological
Evolution
descent with modification
Charles Darwin
theory of evolution was natural selection
Artificial Seletion
selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals
Natural Selection
descent with modification, favorable traits in a population
Strata
where fossils form
Biogeography
geographic distribution of species, organisms evolve from common ancestors
Homology
similarity in characteristics from common ancestry
Homologous Structures
structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry
Population
group of individuals belonging to one species and living the same geographic area
Mutation
change in the nucleotide sequence of an organism's DNA
Gene Pool
total collection of genes in a population
Microevolution
change in frequencies of alleles in gene pool
Genetic Drift
change in the gene pool of a population due to chance
Sexual Dimorphism
marked differences between secondary sex characteristics of males and females
Sexual Selection
form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates
Stabilizing Selection
favors intermediate phenotypes (middle)
Disrupting Selection
favors individuals at both extremes of phenotypic range
Directional Selection
acts against individuals at one of the phenotypic extremes (age, height)
Species
can produce fertile offspring
Speciation
emergence of a new species
Taxonomy
classify species
Biological Species Concept
interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring
Reproductive Isolation
existence of a biological factor that prevent species from reproduction
Reproductive Barrier
isolate a gene pool and prevent inter-breeding
Prezygotic Barrier
reproductive barrier that prevents fertilization or mating
Postzygotic Barrier
reproductive barrier that prevents hybrid zygotes from developing into adults
Geographic Barrier
physical barrier that prevents hybridization of species
Adaptive Raditation
period of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms form new species whose adaptations allow them to fill vacant roles in environment
Punctuated Equilibrium
in fossil record, species evolves in short bursts (Stephen Day Gould)
Gradualism
in fossil record, species evolves gradually over time (Darwin)
Macroevolution
major changes over evolutionary time
Early Atomsphere
water vapor and compounds from volcanic eruptions
Energy Sources in Early Atmosphere
volcanic activity, lightning, UV radiation
Stanley Miller
tested Oparin-Haldare Hypothesis and simulated conditions of early earth, found amino acids
Earth formed...
3.5 billion years ago
Paleozoic Era
ancient animal, aquatic life, end had plants and animals on ground
Mesozoic Era
middle animal, reptiles and dinosaurs, mammals at end
Cenozoic Era
recent animal, mammals, birds
Radiometric Dating
measure decay of radioactive isotopes
Continental Drift
slow, continuous movement of earth's crustal plates on the hot mantle
Pangaea
supercontinent
Geologic Record
time scale that divides earth's history into time periods, grouped into Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic Eons
Binomial
two-part name of species
Genus
first part of species binomial
Species
second part of species binomial
Cell Walls
maintain shape, physical protection, prevent hypotonic environment
Gram Stain
technique to identify the cell wall composition of bacteria
Gram Positive
cell wall that is less complex, Actinomycetes (antibiotics) and Cyanobacteria (oxygen generating)
Gram Negative
cell wall that is complex, Chlamidia (STD) and Spirochetes (syphilis)
Pili
hair like appendages
Flagella
allow bacteria to move
Endospores
thick protective coat, dehydrate, tolerant of extreme heat/cold
Exotoxins
poisonous protein secreted by bacteria
Endotoxins
poisonous component released when bacteria dies
Ecology
how organisms interact with their environment
Biosphere
entire population of earth inhabited by life
Biotic Factors
living component of community (organism)
Abiotic Factors
nonliving component of community (air, water)
Habitat
place where an organism lives
Organism
individual living thing
Population
group of individuals belonging to one species and living in the same area
Community
all the organisms living together and interacting in one area
Ecosystem
all organisms in one area along with abiotic factors
Landscapes
several different ecosystems linked by exchanges of animals, energy or materials
Rachel Carson
envt awareness, wrote "Silent Spring"
Intertidal Zone
shallow zone where waters of estuary or ocean meet
Photic Zone
aquatic ecosystem in which light and photosynthesis occur
Pelagic Zone
region of ocean occupied by seawater
Benthic Zone
seafloor
Aphotic Zone
no light and vast
Coral Reefs degraded by...
pollution, predators and human souvenir hunters
Estuaries
areas where rivers meet the ocean
Freshwater Biomes
river, lake, stream
Terrestrial Biomes
tundra, savanna, rainforest, desert, desiduous forest, coniferous forest, chaparral, grassland
Population Ecology
changes in population size and factors that regulate populations
Population
number and distribution of individuals
Dispersion Pattern
manner in which individuals of a population are spaced within their area
Clumped Dispersion Pattern
dispersion pattern in which individuals are in patches
Exponential Growth Model
represents idealized, unregulated population growth
Logistic Growth Model
idealized population growth that is restricted by limiting factors
Limiting Factors
environmental factors that restrict population growth
Carrying Capactity
number of individuals that an environment can sustain